New recipes

Mission Chinese Shut Down by Department of Health and More News

Mission Chinese Shut Down by Department of Health and More News

In today's Media Mix, Jonathan Waxman headed to Nashville, plus Walmart upping its beer game

New York's hippest restaurant was closed last night.

Check out these headlines you may have missed.

Mission Chinese DOH Problems: Danny Bowien's popular "weird Chinese" joint in New York City has been temporarily shut down by the Department of Health over "severe mouse infestation." A sign on their door also says "closed because of leak in basement." [Gothamist/Eater]

Jonathan Waxman to Nashvhille: Is Nashville the next darling food town of the South? First Sean Brock opens Husk, and now Jonathan Waxman is planning a new restaurant in the city. [Tennessean]

Walmart: Beermart: The grocery store is hoping to become the next beverage giant, aiming to double beer sales in three years. [AdAge]

Politico's Food Coverage: The politics site has launched an agriculture beat, examining regulations and issues in agriculture and food industries. [Politico]

Barilla Spoof: And here is a video spoofing the recent Barilla anti-gay comments. [HuffPo]

Compassion in Action

To escape the Tibetan Autonomous Region (TAR), refugees make an arduous trek across the Himalayas. Often their family’s savings have gone into sending them out, yet they cannot afford sufficient supplies for the journey and they arrive in Nepal malnourished, frostbitten, ill. The refugees know that if they’re caught en route by Chinese security forces, they could be shot and killed, and if they’re caught by the Nepalese border patrol, they risk being returned to their homeland, where they could face imprisonment and torture. Yet despite these hazards, refugees continue fleeing Tibet because the situation there is that dire.

“Tibet and the Tibetan people are going through the hardest time in our history,” says Lobsang Nyandak, the representative of the Dalai Lama to the Americas. “But in terms of reaching out to the international community, we are confronted with a powerful China everywhere in this globe.”

In 1968, Richard Blum went to Nepal to go trekking in the mountains. He spent his first night in the country at a Tibetan refugee camp where there were little kids who had been carried over the passes on their parents’ shoulders. Those children plunked themselves in Blum’s lap and spoke to him in English and—as he says—he was “gone” that very night, gone into love for such warm people.

Today Richard Blum is a major figure in California business and government circles. A wealthy investment banker, he is chair of the University of California Board of Regents. He is married to United States Senator Dianne Feinstein.

Blum played a key role in the Dalai Lama’s first-ever visit to the U.S., and continues his dedication to the cause of the Tibetan people he first encountered in 1968. With the two-fold mission of improving lives in the Himalayas and of preserving the environment, Blum founded the American Himalayan Foundation in 1980. Today the San Francisco-based foundation is involved with approximately 175 different projects, many helping Tibetans. When choosing projects, says vice president Norbu Tenzing, “We don’t go to a place and say, ‘Listen, this is what we think you should do.’ We respond to the priorities of the local people.” Sometimes this approach takes AHF in unexpected directions, as in the case of Mustang.

The Nepalese region of Mustang is populated by ethnic Tibetans and is one of the few remaining sanctuaries of authentic Tibetan culture in the world. Fifteen years ago, however, the people of Mustang were losing confidence in their heritage and living in extreme poverty. Tenzing says, “Our chairman Richard Blum went to the area and asked the King of Mustang what AHF could do for his people. He thought the king would say, ‘I want education or healthcare.’” Instead, the king said that the best way to improve his people’s lives was to restore Mustang’s crumbling monasteries.


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Restoration took twelve years of painstaking work, but it did indeed spark a profound transformation. AHF’s team of carpenters and wall-painting conservators trained the local people, the Loba, to restore their own treasures. This provided jobs and suddenly made daycares necessary. Then the Loba, with a renewed pride in their culture, wanted Tibetan teachers for their children they wanted a high school. AHF began building clinics and working with youth groups. “The community,” says Tenzing, “has benefited a lot.”

When trying to help people, says Erica Stone, the president of AHF, you have to take many factors into consideration. “You can’t just helicopter over, drop the dollars, and go away, thinking something has happened. You have to pay attention.” For instance, many people in Tibet’s villages get sick because they don’t have clean water systems, but it isn’t enough to simply provide the materials for toilets. “The germ theory of disease is still a theory in Tibet,” Stone explains. “ Nobody has ever given these folks a basic health talk on hand washing and the importance of clean water.”

When AHF provides clean water systems, they also facilitate the education necessary to make the systems effective. “If you’re patient and you have somebody local who knows what they’re doing explain things to people, they rise to the occasion,” says Stone. People often come up to the instructor after the training and say, “This is the best day of my life. I didn’t know these things before.”

Another way that AHF is changing lives inside Tibet is by building bridges—critical work in a country of mountain ranges and torrential rivers. When there is no bridge, it can take six or seven hours to find a place to ford, and fording rivers puts people and their herds in danger of drowning. But people must get to the other side—for school, for medical emergencies, for their livelihood. To date, AHF has sponsored the construction of twenty-eight bridges.

“It’s a small investment on our part,” says Tenzing, but “the wonderful thing about these bridges is what the community puts in. It’s huge. We’re providing the hard materials but the community is out there in full force. Everybody is digging, getting supplies, making sure this thing is built.”

Similarly, locals form the backbone of AHF-supported orphanages in Tibet. One of these orphanages is run by a man who was an orphan himself. As a child, he walked from Tibet to Nepal and later went to India, where he got an education. When he returned to his home country, he was beaten and jailed. Months later, when the Chinese government finally let him out, he noticed there were children on the streets who were abandoned, and he started taking them in.

Stone says: “Every so often someone will bring him a very young child who’s been abandoned because the father has been killed and the mother is in jail. Or there is a little note from a parent that says, ‘I have no money to give this child anything to eat. I’m so sorry.’ He puts these kids in the local government schools and they live together.” Now, he has well over fifty children in his charge and he has a house that a donor helped him buy. AHF takes care of the expenses.

Implementing humanitarian aid programs in the Tibetan Autonomous Region is sensitive work. To avoid having the Chinese shut down their programs, Western organizations must steer clear of political activity, they must partner with local organizations that operate with the full knowledge and recognition of the local government, and for the most part they must be very discreet about their support. Some people describe it this way: To do work in Tibet, you have to cultivate a Buddhist attitude. You must be willing to do the work for the sake of doing good, rather than taking credit. You must be willing to work invisibly. And these days the strictures are not limited to Tibet itself. The current Nepalese government leans toward China, so now Western humanitarian organizations must also be extremely careful about how they support Tibetan refugees there.

The Tibet Fund is programs in both the TAR and the Tibetan exile community. In every place they work, health care is a priority for them. Robyn Brentano, who has been working with the Tibetan exile community in exile since the early eighties and who is the Tibet Fund’s executive director, explains, “Health care for Tibetans in Tibet is extremely scarce. For many Tibetans who live in remote areas, access to a doctor is a two days’ walk away.” Eye care is a particular area of concern.

In 1992, the Chinese government did a survey and they found that approximately thirty thousand tibetans in Tibet were suffering from cataract blindness. Yet there were not enough facilities to treat the condition. In 1999, the Tibet Fund provided the financing to construct an eye care hospital in Lhasa, and since then they’ve been providing support for services at that hospital and at what they call “eye camps,” mobile clinics that conduct cataract removal operations in remote areas. The camps are conducted over the summer and are staffed by Western doctors. each doc- tor restores the sight of between four and seven hundred patients per season.

Education, says Brentano, is another of the tibet Fund’s priorities. “It’s important that children growing up in exile and in tibet receive education in the tibetan medium—in other words, that they preserve their culture. But it is also important that they gain skills that allow them to be competitive in the global economy. This is a balance that his holiness the Dalai Lama has been encouraging.”

Outside the borders of Tibet, the Tibet Fund promotes education by supporting Tibetan-run schools, including Tibetan Children’s Village, which cares for more than 16,000 orphaned and dis- advantaged children throughout india. Plus, with the support of the U.S. State Department, it also administers a scholarship program for university students to study in the U.S. Rinchen Dharlo, who was the representative of the Dalai Lama to the Americas from 1987 to 1996, is the president of the tibet Fund. He finds it rewarding to see how these scholarships allow students to return to their communities and become leaders. “When i go back to India,” he says, “everywhere I see former students in top positions with the Tibetan government-in-exile.” This educational opportunity opens doors for people in terms of thinking about their potential.

The Tibet Fund, which is based in New York, has strong ties with the tibetan government-in-exile. Brentano explains: “We receive funds from both the U.S. government and private donors to administer various programs. The central Tibetan administration is responsible for the program implementation on the ground and they have a very well developed infrastructure for doing that.”

Like the Tibet Fund and the American Himalayan Foundation, the International Campaign for Tibet (ICT) also has the mission to improve Tibetan lives. but ICT takes a very different approach, one of information and advocacy. It was founded in Washington, D.C., and maintains its largest office there, but it also has offices in Amsterdam, Berlin, and Brussels.

I connected with ICT’s Kate Saunders at her home base in London and asked her how she got involved with the Tibetan cause. “I was traveling in India,” she told me, “and I met a group of monks who had just escaped from Tibet. I was working as a journalist at that time and had written a book on human rights issues in China, but when I heard the monks’ stories, I realized I didn’t know very much about what was happening in Tibet. Like so many people, I had read the Lobsang Rampa books when I was young, which gave me the impression Tibet was a Shangri-La with exotic lamas, but of course the reality is very far from that. Now I work on monitoring the actual situation on the ground and challenging China’s representations.”ICT monitors and reports on human rights in Tibet, as well as environmental and socioeconomic conditions, and in this work they encounter many challenges. Saunders explains: “China seeks to block news about Tibet from reaching the outside world, so ICT gets fragments of information. We get partial stories and pieces of information that we have to try to confirm and put together. We’re working from official sources as well, so we’re looking at what China Daily says, we’re looking at the plethora of information on Chinese websites. Another important factor is that, since the global economic meltdown began, resources have been pulled from media outlets in the West. But at the same time China is injecting more than $46 billion into creating new media resources representing the state’s point of view. It’s a constant information war.”

In Tibet the penalties for low-level information sharing are more severe than almost anywhere else in the world. Recently the Chinese authorities announced a campaign against what it calls “rumor mongering.” One official statement said that not only can someone be punished for spreading a rumor, they can also be punished for listening to a rumor, that is, to anything that casts Chinese rule in a negative light.

This campaign is just one way in which China has clamped down on Tibet since protests began sweeping across the plateau in march 2008. The majority of these protests have been peaceful, but “the Chinese have attempted to represent what has happened as one violent riot on March fourteenth,” says Saunders. And they have used this to justify their crackdown.

The current climate of fear was brought home to Saunders when she was in Kathmandu last year and met a newly arrived refugee from Lhasa. “He was this smart, young guy, about twenty-four, and he’d come to Nepal with absolutely nothing,” says Saunders. “He’d been a witness to the protests in march 2008. He’d helped someone and as a result he was in danger. He never knew whether there would be a knock on the door in the middle of the night and he was becoming more and more anxious. So, he decided to take the risk to live in exile. I asked him about what had happened after March fourteenth and whether he knew anybody who’d been shot dead, because even now, two years later, we still don’t know how many people were actually killed, though sources indicate that hundreds lost their lives. He said to me, ‘I don’t know. What you have to understand is that we can’t talk to each other about these things. I can’t even tell my mother what i did on March fourteenth.’”

ICT has various ways of informing the public about the situation in Tibet and ensuring that Tibetan voices get heard. One of them is publishing Tibetan literature and blogs in English. Eastern Snow Mountain is a collection of writings produced inside Tibet about the protests since March 2008. Recently, ICT translated some of it into English and published it in their report, A Great Mountain Burned by Fire.

Wednesday, June 3, 2020




One thing many Nigerians do not know about Muhammadu Buhari is that he is very ideologically-driven. There are not many things he does out of mere whims. Before he proposes an idea, signs a document or refuses to sign, he carefully considers how it falls into the scope of his mission in power.

When he ignores Section 14(3) of the Constitution and appoints mostly Northern Muslims (especially Fulani) into high offices rather than equitably sharing them among all the stakeholders, it is part of a grand agenda.

Moderates of this ideology are ready to accommodate other Nigerians knowing it is a hopeful way of maintaining control for as long as possible. But the extremists want Nigeria to become the property of their tribe (not just region), including those among them who are not even Nigerians. And they want to take it by force.

This group sees Buhari’s ascent to power for the second time as a once in a lifetime opportunity to nail home this agenda. The high uptick of armed herdsmen’s occupation and marauding of the forests, farmlands and highways of the Middle Belt and South of Nigeria became pronounced under Buhari.

In view of the foregoing, let us ask ourselves what President Buhari them wants to achieve with his recent Executive Orders seeking the direct allocation of funds to the local government councils, LGCs the State Houses of Assembly, SHAs and Judiciaries. Many of us, including eminent lawyers and sectional leaders of thought have applauded these measures. I had started applauding until I thought twice.

There is no doubt about it: the power the governors have been exerting over their LGCs, SHAs and Judiciaries is unconstitutional, undemocratic and corruption-enhancing. The governors thus continue to operate like emperors and military administrators in spite of our return to constitutional rule in 1999. They are so powerful that nobody can hold them to account while in power. The SHAs cannot impeach a governor unless there is a Federal hand in it.

Democracy is impossible at the grassroots because those in power at the LGCs are the governors’ agents. On the other hand, some of the governors (such as Orji Kalu, Bola Tinubu, Chibuike Amaechi, Samuel Ortom, Nyesom Wike, and others) have capitalised on their powers to assert the boldness of the state as a federating unit. Take away these powers and the Federal Government (which is under the control of a sectional and ethnic establishment) will neutralise any governor no matter how brave.

Could Tinubu have survived President Olusegun Obasanjo’s onslaughts when the former was the governor of Lagos without being in full grasp of the LGCs/LCDAs, Judiciary and LSHA? Could Wike have succeeded in his second term bid in Rivers amid the massive military and police might mounted against him if he had been similarly stripped?

Before we continue to clap for the “independence” of these state arms of governance, let’s consider this. With these “freedoms” the LG chairmen, speakers and members of the SHAs and state chief judges will acquire some level of independence. They will begin to resist their governors and fall out with some of them.

If these governors are in the bad books of Abuja, the heads of these governmental arms could be wooed by Abuja with money and police/military support to ruffle their governors. They could be tools in rendering governors incapable of holding their grounds against Abuja’s intentions which [email protected] against the interests of the people. Abuja will more easily get governors impeached, some chief judges playing along.

If Abuja comes back with the Ruga or Cattle Colony demands it will find compromised leaking points to get its way.

Buhari’s interest in promoting the independence of the LGCs, SHAs and State Judiciaries is a double-edged sword. With autonomy, good officers will be more able to rapidly develop the grassroots and hold the governors to account. Quislings can be empowered to sell out collective group interests and make the capture of states for the interest of an “empire building” ethnic group easier. That was what created crisis in the Western Region in the First Republic.

These sudden benevolences by an ultra-statist centralist are simply packaged to weaken the state governors for purposes that are neither altruistic nor compatriotic. If Buhari were such a democrat, he would have started the crusade from Abuja itself. He would have been promoting the independence of the National Assembly and Federal Judiciary. Why is he pocketing them and “freeing” state governance arms? It stinks.

If the President wants to promote true federalism and democracy, he should push for the six geopolitical zones to become the nation’s federating units with power drastically devolved to them. The Federal Government should have no business with the LGCs. The regions should create and legislate on all local government affairs. The respective regions should determine the paces of their development.

Abuja must give power back to the people and stop using Federal might, resources and institutions to drive the expansionist designs of an ethnic group or section. These Executive Orders are Greek gifts!



Islam has always undertaken Jihad of the sword (physical war) for political space Jihad of Sharia for constitutional order which recognises no government based on Constitutions other than Sharia (Quran, Hadith/Sunna & opinion of Islamic scholars on issues not covered in the two).
With Jihad of Words & Deception Islamists turn followers into fanatical/incendiary militants and also deceive the unbeliever.

And that is the deception Azikiwe, Awolowo, Ironsi, Obasanjo, Jonathan and most non- Moslems of Nigeria in Afenifere, OHANAEZE, SOUTH-SOUTH & MIDDLE BELT LEADERS of date, have suffered/ are suffering from the 1950s till date.
Gullibility of these leaders has brought Nigeria to where it is today - quarter to Islamic State.
Nigeria has been experimenting the impossible in its effort to breed carnivorous leopards with herbivorous lambs in the same pen. In Nigeria of today the leopards are devouring the lambs and unless there is separation into strongly partitioned pens, it is only a matter of time, there would be few lambs left, if at all any.

With Jihad of taxation & finance Islamists bribe their way through any obstacle.
With Jihad of Polygamy (Population) they breed children they have neither the capability nor the intension of bringing up properly (Almajiri). The intension is to overwhelm the non- MOSLEMS politically and also increase poverty which supplies the militants that fight their Jihad of the sword. Poverty is the life blood of feudalism. This same Jihad includes Manipulation of Census figures.

At the end of the day Sharia Jihad attempts to compel adherents live their lives as Prophet Mohammed lived (Hadith or Sunna) till he died in 632 AD. That is part of why primitive open grazing is preferred to civilised cattle ranching. They tell you is their way of life even though Saudi Arabia, the citadel of Islamism, breeds cattle in air-conditioned environment.

They have inflicted Jihad of Deception on Ohanaeze Ndigbo, like they did to Azikiwe, Awolowo etc
& and the leadership believes this DECEPTION.

Simply put, the young men streaming down South from the North might fight a Jihad of the Sword before 2023. Or they might not.
They might be employed to serve the purposes of RUGA. Marry or impregnate our poor daughters and form increased Fulani communities down South.
20/30 years from now, they can boast of substantial Fulani population in the South to engage in politics/physical war without importing any more Fulani into Nigeria!

On enslavement, the Fulani can plan for 50 years in advance, unlike us.

What is happening in Nigeria today is after all, the call to order for Jihad which the Sarduana (Chief Jihadist (warrior) of the Sultan Sarkin Mussulumi) declared in October 1960, a few days after Independence.
May we help ourselves so that God will find an effort to bless.



I must commend Prince Charles Tabansi for his first posting on the Enugwu-ukwu imbroglio. As is consistent in my coming title on Nri, he inexorably dismisses Enugwu-ukwu pretences without breaking any bones.
I congratulate him.

But his Posting titled " *NRIBUISI IGBO"* seems to raise more historical controversies than it appears to answer. I will discuss four of them hereunder:

1. *Menri was the First Son of Eri, not the Last:*
Historical evidence says so. Onoja, Nwa Oboli, who founded the Igala dynasty, was the last son of Eri. Oboli was the last wife of Eri. We used to crack jokes during moonlight plays in the 1950s on Onoja Nwa Oboli's IQ.

MeNri has been shown by renowned historians & anthropologists as the first son of Eri.
Please refer to MDW Jeffreys, PhD, a Cambridge scholar of Anthropology. He put Nri ahead of all the other Eri sons as the one who took charge after the demise of Eri. Whilst Menri was still at Eriaka (Obuga), famine struck. Menri was reported to have appealed to Chiukwu for palliatives for the Igbo nation. Chiukwu directed him to make some sacrifices which he did. The sacrifice with his son resulted in the yam and its culture - Ifejioku etc - Refs. MDW Jeffreys: _"The Umunri Tradition of Origin_ ," African Studies XV, 1956, pp. 122-3.

Elizabeth Isichei repeated Jeffreys legend in her 1983 book, " _A History of Nigeria_ ," p. 24.

I reproduced this myth in pages 20-22 of my 2014 published Public Lecture titled " _IWA OJI IN IGBO COSMOLOGY_ " in ABIA State University Uturu, Centre for Igbo Studies (Obi Ikenga). Copies of the published lecture are available in the extant Eze Nri Palace of Nrienwelani II.
Furthermore, our own dear Onwuejeogwu, in page 26 of no. 2, September 1977 edition of ODINANI Journal seems to have impliedly validated this when he wrote as follows:

" _Eri was sent by CHUKWU (the creator) from the sky to rule mankind he came down the Anambra, near the present site of Aguleri. His first wife bore Nri, the founder of Agukwu Nri Agulu who founded Aguleri Onogu, the founder of Igboariam Ogbodudu, the founder of Amanuke a daughter Iguedo who bore the founders of Nteje, Nando, Ogbunike, Umuleri and Awkuzu. His second wife bore Onoja who left for the upper Anambra near Ogulugu, and to found Igalaland._ "
Continuing, he further asserted:
" __Nri the son of Eri left the Anambra southwards into the forest. He lived first in Amanuke, then near the present Enugwu-ukwu, finally at Agukwu."__

Ownership of Obuga, as the first son of his father, was probably why Nrifikwuanim instructed and his sons returned and buried his body in Eriaka, now known as Aguleri. As I confirmed in my 2014 Lecture, Aguleri claims, published in Sunday Vanguard newspaper of August 10, 2014, pp.36-37 assert that the had identified Nri grave along with that of his father, Eri but no news of that of Agulu. This further development from Aguleri further authenticates my position.
Again this probably is reason why every emerging Eze Nri, returns to Obuga, MeNri's inheritance, for some rituals before finally ascending the Eze Nri throne.

If renowned historians/anthropologists and other credible evidence have accorded Nri the first position, why should we go for the conjecture of the last.
If however there are reliable evidence by published authorities that would be a different thing. Even then, we shall have subject such source to thorough verification.


It is true that Eze Nribuife unified the thrones of Nri and Diodo during his reign 1159 - 1252 AD and as Onwuejeogwu wrote that _"was crucial to the process of the unification of the three settlements. . ."_ But as Onwuejeogwu also admits, that was the beginning of the process " _each unit still maintains its autonomy in several ways."_ Those several ways, however included the most critical aspect of unification of thrones - homage to the unified throne. Onwuejeogwu further admits " _that Diodo and AKAMKPISI sections must never pay tribute to Eze Nri."_

However in page 24 of Onwuejeogwu's 1981 book, " _An Igbo Civilisation, Nri Kingdom & Hegemony_ " he committed a faux pas by suggesting that Nzemabua, the Kingmakers of Nri, included four Ozo men from Diodo & AKAMKPISI. Till date this never happened. Onwuejeogwu could be excused for misunderstanding what our elders told him because at the time, he was indeed battling with more thorough grasp of Igbo language as his third language after Hausa and English. He admitted this much severally to me on Igbo language.

The unification under Nribuife can, at best, be regarded as superficial in most because the two settlements did not seem to have subjected themselves to Eze Nri Palace until the reign of Eze Nrijiofor II. There was no meeting point for the three units which continued to operate separately until later.

The amalgamation into a federation in actuality appeared to have commenced sometimes in the late 1940s. under my father, Prince JBN Onyesoh, as the founding PG of NPU in 1947. He was reported to have foreseen the present acrimonies from that amalgamation and expressed very serious reservations.

There was no OruNzenaino before EzeNrijofo II. It was founded under His Majesty during the amalgamation. My father, as one of the very tiny percentage of literate members of that Nzemabua, was overruled in his objection to according Akamkpisi/Diodo 12-man membership of the 24-man Ruling Council, despite their making less than 20% of the population of the Union. Till date, this disproportionately equating 20-26% to 74% has created very serious problems for the present generation, which is yet to muster the guts to resolve the obvious inequity.
Uruoji village alone constitutes 31% of amalgamated Nri!

Akamkpisi as we grew up in the late 1940s and 1950s, used to celebrate its Agwu, Onwasato and such other big festivals on their own separate dates, weeks apart, from Nri.
Initiation into their Ozo, till date is a different kettle of fish.
Agukwu shares no shrine with AKAMKPISI. It, instead, shares with Enugwu-ukwu.

3. *Nri Bu Is Omenani Igbo* : Above assertion is more plausible than "Nri Bu Isi Igbo. " If Nri as Menri or as Nrifikwuanim bu Isi Igbo, what was his father?
The over ten legacies of Nri puts Nri above & over all other Igbo Communities, as the Custodian of Igbo Culture & Tradition/ Ancestral Homeland.

Besides Diodo, Akamkpisi, Eriaka, it is common ground that Amanuke, Ugbene, Osili and a host of other Igbo Communities, also existed before Nri.
It thus seems to make more sense to define Nri supremacy by asserting it as follows: *Nri Bu Isi Omenani Igbo*

4. *History has two major sources*: First, Primary Sources, also called original sources and secondly, Secondary. Sources.

Primary Sources are artefacts. documents, diaries, manuscripts, autobiographies, recordings or any other source of information that was created at the time under study by witnesses or participants to the event.
Secondary sources are generally *scholarly* books and articles, which invariably interpret and analyse primary sources and may contain pictures, quotes or graphics of primary sources.

Anything outside these, is mere conjecture or wishful thinking like Enugwu-ukwu, Igboukwu and Aguleri, do.

All articulate citizens of Nri of today are 20th Century children, including my humble self. Therefore to be more credible,
writers are advised to write without reference, only on what they witnessed. If they wish to go beyond that, the source of such information should be disclosed.

Let us learn to show superiority over Enugwu-ukwu, Igboukwu and Aguleri's wild claims and assertions.

The truth and nothing else, but the verifiable truth, is what puts Nri over and above all the other communities.
Igboukwu seems to have been put to rest. And so shall the rest eventually be.

Emeka Onyesoh,
Oba Agbalanze,
Obeagu Village,
Agukwu, Nri. 2nd June 2020.


Upon opening, it planned to first take up a project that required only BSL-3 precautions to be in place: a tick-borne virus that causes Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

It's as highly fatal disease, killing 10 to 40 percent of those it infects.

SARS, too, is a BSL-3 virus. According to Nature's interview with the lab's director, Yuan Zhimin, the Wuhan National Biosafety Laboratory planned to study the SARS virus.

In January 2018, the lab was operational 'for global experiments on BSL-4 pathogens,' wrote Guizhen Wu in the journal Biosafety and Health.

After a SARS virus escaped in a 'leak' from another lab in 2004, Chinese officials worked to improve safety, but also to expand the country's capacity to continue to study the very viruses its lab had let out.

Scientists at the Wuhan Virology Institute wear high-grade hazmat suits. On the institute's grounds is the Wuhan Biosafety Laboratory, which is designated to study the most dangerous pathogens, including viruses like Ebola and SARS

These Hazmat suits are intended to protect scientists from easily transmitted viruses, like those that can be caught by breathing in, while working at the Wuhan lab

'After a laboratory leak incident of SARS in 2004, the former Ministry of Health of China initiated the construction of preservation laboratories for high-level pathogens such as SARS, coronavirus, and pandemic influenza virus,' wrote Guizhen Wu.

It's not clear what or where those labs were.

The Wuhan lab is also equipped for animal research.

In 2017, the scientists who spoke to Nature acknowledge the opportunity this presents for the development of vaccines and treatments.

Regulations for animal research - especially that conducted on primates - are much looser in China than in the US and other Western countries, meaning these studies are less costly and face fewer barriers that could limit or slow them.

But that was also cause for concern for Trevan.

Studying the behaviour of a virus like 209-nCoV and developing treatments or vaccines for it requires infecting these research monkeys, an important step before human testing.

Monkeys are unpredictable though, warned Ebright.

'They can run, they can scratch they can bite,' he said, and the viruses they carry would go where their feet, nails and teeth do.


December 31 2019: Total of 27 suspected cases

The WHO China Country Office was informed of cases of pneumonia of unknown cause detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China. Around 27 suspected cases were reported in the month of December.

January 1 2020: Total of 27 suspected cases

A seafood market was closed for environmental sanitation and disinfection after being closely linked with the patients.

January 5 2020: Total of 59 suspected cases

Doctors ruled out severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as being the cause of the virus, as well as bird flu, Middle East respiratory syndrome and adenovirus. Meanwhile, Hong Kong reported suspected cases.

January 9 2020: Total of 59 confirmed cases, one death

A preliminary investigation identified the respiratory disease as a new type of coronavirus, Chinese state media reported.

Officials at Wuhan Municipal Health Commission reported the outbreak's first death on January 9, a 61-year-old man.

January 13 2020: Total of 42 confirmed cases, one death

A Chinese woman in Thailand was the first confirmed case of the mystery virus outside of China. The 61-year-old was quarantined on January 8, but has since returned home in a stable condition after having treatment, the Thai Health Ministry said.

January 14 2020: Total of 42 confirmed cases, one death

The WHO told hospitals around the globe to prepare, in the 'possible' event of the infection spreading.

It said there is some 'limited' human-to-human transmission of the virus. Two days previously, the UN agency said there was 'no clear evidence of human to human transmission'.

January 16 2020: Total of 43 cases, two deaths

A man in Tokyo is confirmed to have tested positive for the disease after travelling to the Chinese city of Wuhan.

A second death, a 69-year-old man, was reported by officials at Wuhan Municipal Health Commission. He died in the early hours of January 15 at Jinyintan Hospital in Wuhan city having first been admitted to hospital on December 31.

January 17 2020: Total of 44 cases, two deaths

Thailand announces it has detected a second case. The 74-year-old woman had been quarantined since her arrival on Monday. She lived in Wuhan.

Scientists at Imperial College London fear up to 4,500 patients in Wuhan may have caught the virus. A report said if cases are this high, substantial human to human transmission can't be ruled out.

John F Kennedy International Airport (JFK), San Francisco International Airport and Los Angles International Airport (LAX) will start screening passengers arriving from Wuhan, US officials said.

January 18 2020: Total of 48 cases, two deaths

Thailand steps up monitoring at four airports receiving daily flights from Wuhan. Airports in Japan, Malaysia and Singapore are also screening passengers from Wuhan, authorities said.

Four more cases have been identified in a viral pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, bringing the total to 45 in the city alone.

January 19 2020: Total of 65 cases, two deaths

China reported 17 more cases of pneumonia caused by a new coronavirus strain had been found in Wuhan. It takes the city's total to 62, including two deaths, and the global total to 65.

All of the cases to this point involved people either living in Wuhan or who have travelled to the city.

Public Health England and Britain's chief medical officer said they would not be introducing screenings at UK airports at this point.

January 20 2020: Total of 222 cases, three deaths.

China reported a sharp rise in the number of people infected with a new coronavirus over the weekend, including 136 more cases in Wuhan city, taking its total to 198.

The outbreak spread across China five cases in Beijing, 14 in Guangdong, and one in Shanghai.

South Korea confirmed its first case - a 35-year-old woman arriving at Seoul’s Incheon airport tested positive for the virus. She had been in Wuhan the week prior. This took the total cases outside China to four.

Details were not revealed about the third death.

Chinese President Xi Jinping said saving lives was a top priority, adding that information about the disease was being released in a 'timely manner'.

China's National Health Commission team confirmd the virus can spread between humans.

Two patients in southern China also caught the virus from infected family members, according to local media.

The WHO announced it would hold an emergency meeting to debate whether the outbreak should be declared an international public health emergency.

January 21 202 0: Total of 308 confirmed cases, six deaths

On this day, the death toll rose to six.

The fourth person had died on January 19, an 89-year-old man who developed symptoms, including severe breathing difficulties, on January 13.

The mayor of Wuhan announced two more victims of the lethal infection - a 66-year-old man, known only as Li, and a 48-year-old woman, known only as Yin. Both died from multiple organ failure.

Authorities also said 15 medical workers in the city were included in the confirmed cases. There is also one other suspected case. Of the infected staff, one was in critical condition.

The first American - a man in his 30s - was confirmed to have the new coronavirus outside Seattle in Washington state.

Washington officials said he was in 'good' condition but was in isolation and being closely monitored at Providence Regional Medical Center - Everett, near his home in Snahomish County.

The CDC announced that all passengers arriving to Wuhan from direct or connecting flights would be re-ticketed and rerouted through the three airports with screening already set up and two additional airports, Chicago O'Hare and Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta.

A Brisbane man is being held in isolation over fears he may have contracted the deadly coronavirus while in Wuhan.

Queensland's chief medical officer Dr Jeannette Young confirmed the man has been tested for the illness when he presented with flu-like symptoms after returning home. The results are still unknown.

Australia began screening passengers arriving from a Chinese city in a bid to stop the spread, Brendan Murphy, the chief medical officer for the Australian government, said.

The Philippines also announced that it was investigating its first potential case of the coronavirus. A five-year-old child arrived in the country on January 12 from Wuhan and has since been hospitalised with flu symptoms.

Taiwan reported its first confirmed case. Health officials announced the woman, thought to be around 50 years old, worked in Wuhan. She is currently in hospital receiving treatment, according to local media.

Stock markets in China and Hong Kong dipped today amid fears tourists will refrain from travelling. But shares in firms which make surgical face masks have surged.

Mission Chinese Shut Down by Department of Health and More News - Recipes

Bob, appreciate the sentiment. Couple of countervailing opinions:

1. Italy doesn’t shut down their country (gradually, over time) because of hysteria. Hospitals are simply overwhelmed, I hear.
2. 0.9 mortality vs 0.1 is nearly an order of magnitude. That’s huge.
3. The American government, with the best data and scientists in the world, are recommending social distancing for a minimum of 15 days, which is disruptive to say the least

Dr. Ron Paul on the Covid 19 virus:

Paul seems to agree that its being hyped a bit too much. Between the desperate politicos who fear making a politically costly mistake of some degree, and the media that just pumps and pumps for all they are worth. Not a good combination.

And, we also have a situation where the only things that could make the inevitable Trump 2020 election victory questionable appear to have been delivered in a timely manner.

Covid 19, a function of a sloppy market keeping habit? Or a convenient agenda and strategy delivered to effect a world wide economic depression and a last ditch effort of the Globalists to install a pliable and vacant American president in order that they get a second bite at the apple? That Hillary delivering the goods just did not work out, too bad.

Two reasonable questions. But which one is the truth as it related to the public? Sometimes coincidences are just too coincidental for me. (And I wrote a book about coincidence)

I suspect that this effort too, if it is indeed an executed strategy as opposed to a natural event, will also ultimately fail IMO. Trump is just that kind of guy if history is any judge. But then who really knows?

I’m a self proclaimed germ-o-phobe. I’ve carried hand sanitizer long before it became cool. I’ve always kept my distance from people in general, and I can’t stand being near the sick. I’ve been known to “that guy” who puts on an anti-viral mask when flying, and I’m a chronic hand-washer. Even I think the response has been way way overblown.

The governor closed the gym. Really? The sick don’t go to the gym.

A COVID-19 mortality rate of over 1% from the second link is actually very bad. The last 8 flu seasons killed approximately between 12k to 61k. If the flu mortality rate averages around 0.1%, then we could conceivably be looking at hundreds of thousands to half a million or more dead with this. That combined with how rapid it may occur gives plenty of reason for legitimate concern.

I just hope everyone has enough toilet paper to get through this.

“Coronavirus war of words erupts as superpowers blame each other for COVID-19 ‘bioweapon”

And what are all of the big powers doing? Pointing their fingers at each other for some S.O.M. type strategy by one of them.

The Chinese say that the U.S. developed and set the virus in Wuhan, which is a possibility IMO, the arms length deep state players that remain in our government and who oppose Trump would be able to accomplish such a strategy. And it would be effective, just look around, take a look at your IRA. Make you nervous? Scared enough to want a change in the leadership and direction the country is going?

Timing is everything in life, and Covid 19 delivers on soooo many levels.

Your sources avoid what is probably the most serious threat Covid-19 poses: that the medical system may be overwhelmed. Intelligent people (NN Taleb, Greg Cochran) with actual epidemiological/quantitative background have been warning about this for 6 weeks+. It has happened at a small scale in Northern Italy. Their death rate (as reported) is running over 7%. No doubt it is lower than that in reality, since their statistical sample is less complete than South Korea’s. But, the real rate is much above the 1% S Korea is seeing. Slowing down the spread prevents medical over-capacity deaths, gives time to develop better treatments, and, hopefully, gives time to produce a vaccine.

Ken Mattingly (Gary Sinese):”I don’t have the measles! I’m not gonna get the measles!”

What I find interesting is that depending on where you look around the world, the impact is not the same.
South Korea appears a successful lock down.
Italy not so much.
China, specifically Wuhan, about what you would expect for Ground Zero.
The US and the rest of the EU, the jury is still out.

I think the social distancing is not a bad idea. I have old parents and old neighbor, and have contact with people that are immune-compromised. So my decision to self-isolate after being around 200 strangers seems prudent. That means food stocking, consumable stocking, and such, to be away from the public for a while.

The problem is not the death rate. It never has been. The problem is the transmission rate.
The world will survive, but choosing not to be a vector to infect others is not an over reaction. Its responsible behavior.

I have to ask the question. Why would the Chinese shut down their economy for what looked like (at the time a few tens or few hundreds) dead.

Sorry to sound like a conspiracy nut, but I think the truth is they had a lot more dead than they admitted. The rest of the world has exceeded both the Chinese infection rate and their death rates. That the Chinese weren’t effectively trying to shut it down to begin with seems to indicate that they gave false numbers throughout the crisis.

I think that intelligence to that fact is the reason Trump has acted as he has. Because otherwise this whole thing lacks logic.

0.9 mortality vs 0.1 is nearly 500 times more lethal.
By God if SARS killed 16,000 this will kill millions.
They are at least preparing properly in Iran by digging mass graves early.
Trump just wants everyone to look the other way by giving away cash. Like a thousand dollars will bury grandma. He is heartless.

Brendan wrote, “The rest of the world has exceeded both the Chinese infection rate and their death rates.”

Actually no, this is incorrect. In fact, two of the links in my essay prove it, in South Korea and on the Princess Diamond. In both those places, outside China, the infection rate and death rate was lower than in China.

China imposed harsh restrictions I think for two reasons. First, there were a lot of unknowns then, and they needed to act aggressively when it looked like the disease might become a disaster. It has not however.

Second, they are a totalitarian government, prone to harsh measures. They like to use power over their lowly subjects. This was another opportunity.

This is extremely enlightening–

“Perhaps my analysis is all wrong, even deeply flawed. But the stakes are too high to continue on the current course without reexamining the data and the erroneous models that are predicting doom.”

wayne: He confirms everything I wrote, across the board.

How much medical care was available on the diamond princess? If that was below average that would also affect the calculations

China did not shutdown their economy. Not anymore than the US has at least.

If you look at it with a real eye not all that many people or companies are actually totally closed. I bet far less than 5% in total.
And everyone out of work will get compensated in some way.

We are on a short term temporary slowdown.

Plus China was already on a long holiday the Chinese New Year. All companies were either closed or running short staffed. Two more weeks was not that big of a slow down and only effected one province at a time.
They are all back up and running now.

Heck our company just told us to stop hoping for a layoff we have been declared a national necessity. We will stay open no matter what.
We are even hiring for more permanent positions and expansions.

Before you guys freak out about the 0.9% mortality rate…don’t forget. That’s the rate for those that ACTUALLY CAUGHT THE BUG, not the percentage of the total population. For S.Korea, that was 8000 infections out of 50mil or 0.016% of the pop got the virus, and of THOSE, 0.9% died. That’s why all the draconian measures that the various blue-state governors are taking are doing nothing other than causing economic pain, and social panic.

When the story of the cruise ship came out, everybody thought, “Oh boy…zombie ship, everybody’s gonna die”. The truth turns out to be much less sensational.

Bob. By rate I mean growth rate as a function of time. Not the probability of death. I should have been more clear. Sorry!

I have some more reasons for saying what I did but it’s too late to go into it in detail. But there’s a good paper here on the newest death percentages from Italy.

And here’s some of the growth rates per country. Better than the John Hopkins. I’ll look at it tomorrow to see if they have raw data or a source to make it easier to examine.

”83% of the passengers and crew never got the disease at all, despite being closely confined with infected people for weeks.”

That was with passengers being confined to their cabins, though (with only minor exceptions).

the Chinese did shut down most of their economy, the electricity use figures show that, it has not ramped up post New Year as it usually does, which is why we have had such beautiful clear skies here in Hong Kong.

Personally i doubt that they would do that for the then disclosed number of deaths.

HK has taken a hit as schools universities have been closed for weeks, lots of small business closures, its been tough, but the new cases now are nearly new arrivals, and compulsory 14 quarantine for all arrivals starts tonight.

The numbers have been kept low enough to allow the health system to cope.

Much easier in a city state of course, but it is high density living, public transport rich city.

pzatchok– 20 new hires starting this week in grocery retailing, see below.

Mr. Z.,
–I noticed that! (and then I *re-read* your post again, to make sure you hadn’t referenced him!!)
Pretty good for a law professor, eh?

Anecdotal Tale from the Front-
Regional grocery retailer (200 Stores) to which I’m affiliated– the 48 hour period from Friday 9pm to Sunday 9pm., they did slightly over $1 million in sales, which is roughly 4X’s what they consider normal for that store, at this time period. (fully 99% of that was food & grocery related items.)
[concurrently, a large food-sale was in effect, so we had slightly more inventory in stock than non-sale weeks.]
All “touchpoints” in the Store are being sanitized every 3 hours, and the customers went through 7,500+ Purell wipes in 2 days. (They even ‘retired’ the mechanical Pony ride in the lobby, she’s “resting in the Barn right now, and Will See You Soon.”)
[the empty TP aisle, on the upside, actually gave them a chance to sanitize shelving]
I witnessed 99.9% cooperation from customer’s calm, cool, and collected. It was slow but steady process.
There was a definite pattern in buying, but I don’t have access to that data. (The closing of k-12 schools announced Friday and starting Monday, caught everyone even more off kilter.)
–The toilet-paper thing is confusing everyone at Corporate. A truckload of TP means a truckload of FOOD can’t be delivered. They are trying to balance that out.
–my advice– buy what you normally would buy and pick up additional as available.

I would not take Italys infection/death rate at face value either.

They have a FAR higher rate of extended families than in America. They virtually forced all their old people to stay at home with young people who were far more socially active until that point.
Now that the younger people are not as socially active the infection and death rates are falling into line with the rest of the EU.

Personally I am curious about the nursing home my brother lives in.
They have been on total lock down for 2+ weeks now after being on a security lock down for 3 months. Limited visitors and limited hours then.
Its a Jewish home and received threats. Police caught the idiot but a new security station and doors were then installed. Its a good place, but he gets a little tired of the kosher meals all the time.
So far as we know no residents are infected.

Some more boots on the ground views..
My son’s school has moved over to year 9 pupils only in the morning, and year 8 after lunch, with missing lessons being done online…. It very much feels like they are ramping up for a shutdown.
I have been told by my work that 48 hours after fever has gone and back to work.. so I’m back in tomorrow.
But things have got REALLY serious in the UK… Filming has been cancelled on the most popular UK soap opera. This may cause riots!
Also many supermarket chains are opening only for pensioners for the first hour of the day. This seems to me like the only good idea out of all the above.

86% of people with coronavirus are walking around undetected, study says
The controllers are using that as the reason for the shutdowns.

with already existing health issues, like the flu
Or pollution/smoking. *hack* *cough*

older people were just as likely to not get infected as younger people
Not really accurate representation of the data. They were significantly more likely than “younger people.” The group that was statistically as likely to get infected were the kids in the middle and high school years. Those from 20 to 60 or so were half as likely to get infected.

Yes, this is a deliberate attempt by some to 1) drive the economy into the ground (because when the economy takes a downturn, Republican presidents lose their mandate) and 2) to impose authoritarian rule – even if just for a few moments.

0.9 mortality vs 0.1 is nearly 500 times more lethal.
Hah! And 500 million divided by 325 million is 1 million!

@GWB… Quote..
“Yes, this is a deliberate attempt by some to 1) drive the economy into the ground (because when the economy takes a downturn, Republican presidents lose their mandate) and 2) to impose authoritarian rule – even if just for a few moments.”
It makes zero sense that anyone would create a GLOBAL downturn, and kill potentially many many thousands worldwide, just to influence one government out of the 48 working democratic countries.
Last time I checked, my supermarket was out of toilet paper, but there was plenty of tin foil.

Lee S
It makes zero sense that anyone would create a GLOBAL downturn, and kill potentially many many thousands worldwide

That’s not what I said. In response to the post, which is about unwarranted panic, I said the panic-inducing measures and authoritarian responses were a deliberate attempt by some.

I firmly believe the Chinese were messing around with various virii in their Wuhan lab, and poor procedures had someone carry this one out the door and down to the market. Everything proceeded according to nature at that point.

The response to the virus in America among the media and some gov’t actors has been outrageous.

(And I’m all stocked up on tinfoil, thank you. It’s patience I’m out of.)

Boudica: Was a queen of the British Celtic Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire in AD 60 or 61. She died shortly after its failure and was said to have poisoned herself. She is considered a British folk hero.

After Boudica led her uprising against the Roman empire, and after the Romans returned with several legions of men to teach the Celts, (And everyone else and recover what was “Rightfully theirs”), a lesson they moved into what I believe is London today and killed as I understand it 80,000 people. Hacked them to pieces. And those who were not killed out right was made a slave.

1. What is it that you, Lee S, does not understand about the real exercise of existential power?

2. Why / how do you remain living in such an unconscious state?

Your inability to understand why a Globalist force in the world would want to impose authoritarian rule makes everyone’s existence and freedom tentative at best. Economic destruction causes the need for transformational solutions and it is a perfect play regarding the subject at hand. What exactly do you think George Soros and his adherents, which IMO include the Chinese who would inherit the leadership in the world from the U.S., is up to when he spends his BILLIONS on making Globalism a reality? You already living within the belly of the beast and it all seems so very nice in that warm belly, doesn’t it?

Lee S, please awaken, I beg of you, for as you slumber in your Socialist bed that you share with the beast and remain ignorant related to the lessons of history and the nature of man related to the exercise of existential power we are all diminished and our freedom as it is becomes questionable.

Read in the news today that the death toll of COROVID-19 topped 100 in the U.S.

Here are last year’s flu stats:
“The 2017-2018 flu season was severe for all US populations and resulted in an estimated 959,000 hospitalizations and 61,099 deaths”

That year 61,099 people [deleted] DIED from the FLU. There was no panic. No massive shut down of the economy! Didn’t hear about one single school closeing. Now we are in a panic over death toll of 100.

This hullabaloo is 100% political. It was CNN shouting “FIRE” in a crowded theater. It was designed to appear to tank the US economy to swing voters away from Trump in the November elections.

YES it’s a nasty virus. YES it can kill you, if you are extraordinarily vulnerable. But “OMG THE WORLD IS ENDING. ”. Good Gawd. The people who have spread this panic need to be put in jail for the same reason you get put in jail for shouting “FIRE” in a crowded theater.

Will the Lame Stream News ever publish the death toll related to the PANIC they have engendered? nope.

ugh, not last years. Two years ago.

You do understand that both you and I adhere to different THEORIES of government… It can never be proven that any form of government is correct, it can only be proven that a form is wrong.
I understand that you have some sort of idea that you are trying to “educate” me, in actual fact, you are just proving your own closed mindedness. I have big problems with your form of government, you have with mine…. But our relative economies doing just fine…. or were before the virus.
You might want to check this out..
I acctually wasn’t aware of this fact until earlier… (As rated by the Economist, 2019… A trusted source.)
The top 3 countries rated as the most democratic are Scandinavian… Including Sweden. The US is rated 25th. Perhaps it’s time to focus more on internal problems instead of arguing that you know better than the whole of Northern Europe.


These are all, in the case of America, Democrat / “Progressives” / Democrat Socialists mantras of operation, and they mean every inch of them. Those words and their combined implied intent have real meaning in the real world.

Trump and his very simple America First / Make America Great Again / Keep America Great mantra is a direct and existential threat to the Democrats mantra.

Be not confused and choose a side.

Keeping in mind that I do not trust either side absolutely, all forms of governance are corrupt and a threat to the peoples freedoms. All of them, turn your back on them in trust and regret it without doubt.

Cotour, On a more cheerful note I have a great coin in my collection from The Iceni tribe C.25-43 AD……
Should you wish to take a look…. Feel free to browse my other coins also�BC thru to 1578.
Believe it or not, I have a touch of knowledge regarding history! -)

WOOOOSH, right over your head.

The subject was not Democracy, the subject was Globalism and the thought that an action that one might consider outrageous would not be plausible.

Your tactic of distraction and obfuscation is useless here. I know it is by necessity your and their go to strategy, but not today, please.

I did not want to post this again, but it appears necessary for Lee S’s reeducation. Just because in your reality this kind of thought process and action justification does not exist does not mean that it does not exist. Just like the shark that in fact ate you in my imaginary scenario, the shark or the “beast” cares not one second whether you believe in him or not.

Lee S: What measures do you think Globalist government interests, assuming that you agree that they exist that is, would NOT undertake in order to install their paradigm in the world? Where do you think their morality would force them to draw their line? What are the moral rules that dictate where this line is drawn?

STRATEGY OVER MORALITY / S.O.M. : The Existential Exercise Of Power And The Foundation Of Abuse Of Power
Copyright, J.G.L. 2011, revised 1/20/18, revised 1/19/20


How civilizations, governments and wars and their leadership throughout history are founded, fought and at their existential human core must operate.

Strategy Over Morality describes a two-tiered “conversation” between a Public and their Empowered Leadership where the Public believes there is only a single, no tiered conversation occurring and that single conversation is assumed by the Public to relate to the Public’s morality and truth model perspective.

A model in which leadership or their empowered subordinates within government can subjectively justify to choose to formulate an interpretation of their core fiduciary responsibilities which becomes paramount over and above the public’s truth and morality model. Where plausible deniability can be claimed when “immoral” acts or modified “truth” strategies are employed or executed by leadership, their subordinates or by arms length leadership proxies.

In this “conversation”, leadership in the empowered “Political Realm” or their empowered subordinates step “down” to the public’s level, the “Pedestrian Realm”, and presents information, agenda, policy or strategy in a tailored, palatable package the public can believe and comfortably accept. Leadership then steps back to their “higher” level, formulates and executes “necessary”, by their subjective standards, agenda, policy and strategy where the public’s interpretation of morality or truth is not relevant or becomes optional.

CONCLUSION: The public lives and operates under a subjective moral code or within a “Pedestrian Realm” perspective which they assume their leadership which exists within the “Political Realm” is constrained by. This is a subjective false perspective conclusion on the part of the public. Leadership is not about morality, truth and honesty, leadership is about the fundamental exercise of power and survival.

PUBLIC OR PEDESTRIAN REALM: The individual citizens of any civilization, society or country.

LEADERSHIP OR POLITICAL REALM: Any macro empowered governing entity or their direct subordinates concerned with the formulation and implementation of laws, strategies and policies, both civil and military.

LEADERSHIPS CORE PRIME DIRECTIVE: Above all else the securing, promotion and survival of the society, culture, territory, power and treasure.

The Chinese dictator would love to see regime change in the US.
But this virus will jeopardize his authoritarian control over 1.4 billion people.
It’s easier to attribute this virulent outbreak to incompetence rather than cunning.
Of course Xi is rather cunning.

“But this virus will jeopardize his authoritarian control over 1.4 billion people.”

How? Other than his fellow Communist rulers over turning him because the plans of the “president for life” president Xi went awry (Have a bullet put in his head, or he would just not be seen any more, he “became ill”).

The people of China can become as displeased as they like with there president for life, and it would not really matter that much. He is ready to kill them by the millions if necessary. He has the guns and the men at the ready, just like in the Roman legions.

So other than president for life Xi having to face international scrutiny and criticism, how would his control be threatened in your scenario?

The president for life must have Trump removed by some means, Trump in real terms threatens his power and possibly his life. Can he survive another 4 years of Trump? Trump and his continued administration is the issue and not the president for life worrying about his people not being happy with him.

And so if you agree with me, what will the Chinese leader NOT do to make what must happen happen?

As much as the wanna-be authoritarians may attempt to take temporary advantage of the Covid-19 situation (particularly here in California), the world-wide reaction, whether justified or not, is going to be a very serious step backward for the globalist.

Will the general public be sympathetic to arguments for open borders? Not a chance. With the economic and job loss fallout, there will likely be calls to drastically reduce, if not eliminate H1B programs. Assuming Trump remains in office, the decoupling from China will likely occur at a 10x rate than it might otherwise have occurred. The public will be much more willing to pay higher costs for domestically manufactured goods and accept high tariffs on foreign goods than they otherwise would be if it avoids the next multi-trillion dollar hit to our economy. Finally, if gun and amunition sales is any indicator, there will be higher support for 2A issues among the public than less.

What we are going through is painful, but the end result doesn’t seem likely to be playing into the hands of the globalist. If we can keep our wits about us, the end result will be a much stronger United States.

@Cotour, I didn’t mean to use the democracy index as point in my argument, I just found it interesting, VERY surprising! , And food for thought.
Quote from myself “I understand that you have some sort of idea that you are trying to “educate” me, in actual fact, you are just proving your own closed mindedness. ”
I genuinely need no form of re-education, I am fairly intelligent, pretty well informed, well traveled and balanced in viewpoint… ( As I’ve said many times, I’m concidered a very centralist socialist… You have read my thoughts several times… No need to reiterate.) Just remember, because I disagree with you, doesn’t mean I think less of you.
Did you check out my coin?

We had an earthquake an hour ago here in Salt Lake City, fun stuff. 5.7 on the Richter scale. The best part is the coronavirus news has been pushed out of the headlines. Power outage near Saltair epicenter (Carnival of souls) and Airport closed, Control tower damaged. Some structures lost some bricks, and the angel Moroni on top of the iconic Mormon temple lost his trumpet.
The funny part is they’re telling people to stay away from the buildings, and to stay away from each other so that you do not infect others with the coronavirus. Even first responders are reluctant to help with out protective clothing. What we are programmed to do an emergency is been rewritten as we speak. Everything is changing.

@mpthompson, you are spot on!! Over here in Europe I have not heard a peep regarding how wonderful the EU is, and even the left leaning press I read have finally shut up about Brexit…. Every cloud has a silver lining!
The fact is that every country in Europe are shutting down their borders and restricting movement… Everything the EU don’t stand for, yet We hear nothing at all from the European parliament. Europe is going to learn a lesson which can’t be easily forgotten when this has all past… Namely, when the chips are down, it’s still every country for themselves.
Presumably the same lesson is been taught all over the globe…. I think things are changing in a very basic way… If it will be good or bad remains to be seen… But the times are a changin’

Mpthompson: I agree with your ultimate resulting eventuality. But desperate people will do desperate things in order for things and established trajectories to remain in place that they perceive as being in their interests.

Lee S: I do not consider you unintelligent, not at all. My point to you is your perspective is narrow and self serving.

@Max, funny we come to the same conclusion, for different reasons, but at the same time!
Not so funny, your earthquake…. I hope you, yours and your fellow citizens are safe, and stay safe…
I’d rather have Corona than an earthquake any day. :-(

Andrew: You are new here (probably coming from the link on Instapundit that Sarah Hoyt posted last night), so you might not realize that I do not tolerate obscenities in my posts. And replacing one or two letters doesn’t work either. I have deleted the curse word.

This is a warning. Do it again and I will suspend commenting for a week. Do a third time and you get banned.

I just checked my banking app, and my bank is offering a month’s default on mortgages without penalty to anyone financially affected…. And my meager savings have suffered a 5.6% loss this week… ( Like all good socialists I have my money in managed funds), strangly enough the only fund to be in profit is my high risk medical industry account…. Go figure!
( Are my boots reports welcome? I know there are few Europeans here, so I hope reports from over the water are welcome)

Another silver lining in a very dark cloud is that we can expect a rapid and massive shift to on-line university classes (and perhaps high-school). My daughter is in the University California system and many (all?) campuses have already shited to on-line classes for the remainder of this semester and the coming Spring quarter. Much of this shift will stick and it portends a massive change in high-level level education that was inevitable anyway, but will now happen in weeks rather than years or decades. This shift will drive new entrepreneurial driven solutions into an education system that has been fighting tooth and nail for the status quo. It may become much more difficult for the leftist to maintain their stranglehold on education in what is likely to be a more competitive environment.

Lee, I’ll speak for myself, but I always welcome and appreciate perspectives from outside the US. I strongly suspect the others do as well. Please continue the boots-on-the-ground reports.

“Coronavirus cases have dropped sharply in South Korea” <– As a result of strenuous control efforts, yes.

"Lower death rate estimates for coronavirus, especially for non-elderly, provides hope " <– Hope for what? It's still twice as likely as the common flu to kill young people, clear down to age 10.

"86% of people with coronavirus are walking around undetected, study says" <– If you test almost no one, you get that. It's not good, it's how is spread quickly throughout the population, becoming endemic among survivors — the way the common cold and flu are.

" A review of the disease on the confined Diamond Princess " <– Shows 1%+ of those who get it die from it. To the extent they were confined, it was in their own rooms and with conditioned air. So what?

None of that contradicts American responses to date, after the failure of the CDC meant we could not adopt South Korea's successful containment efforts.

On a pessimistic level– our so called leaders ARE going to drop (borrowed) money by helicopter, they ARE going to continue to blow the budget to Mars, Fake News Inc., will continue to lie, and Billions of borrowed money will be lost to waste fraud and abuse.
Swine are lining up to the biggest feeding trough in history.
-War & Plague, are the Mother of all Tyranny.

On a more optimistic level–
This looks very hopeful:
“An Effective Treatment for Coronavirus (COVID-19)”
James M. Todaro, MD
Stanford University School of Medicine, UAB School of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences
March 13, 2020

“Recent guidelines from South Korea and China report that chloroquine is an effective antiviral therapeutic treatment against Coronavirus Disease 2019. Use of chloroquine (tablets) is showing favorable outcomes in humans infected with Coronavirus including faster time to recovery and shorter hospital stay. US CDC research shows that chloroquine also has strong potential as a prophylactic (preventative) measure against coronavirus in the lab, while we wait for a vaccine to be developed. Chloroquine is an inexpensive, globally available drug that has been in widespread human use since 1945 against malaria, autoimmune and various other conditions.”
“Chloroquine and its analogs has been manufactured and distributed at global scale since approximately 1945. While there has recently been a shortage of N95 protective masks, medical systems can adjust and dramatically increase the supply of chloroquine in the world. Chloroquine tablets and intravenous formulations are generic and easy to produce.”
–“As of February 26, 2020, the UK government has added chloroquine to the list of medicines that cannot be parallel exported from the UK.”
–“In early February, Chongqing Kangle Pharmaceutical was requested by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Consumption Division to promptly increase the manufacturing and production of the active pharmaceutical ingredients chloroquine phosphate despite slowed production during the Chinese New Year.”

Mission Chinese Shut Down by Department of Health and More News - Recipes

There is also a non negligible possibility that #COVID19 was deliberately released &ndash Wuhan is to the CCP as Idlib is to the Syrian Regime &ndash and propagated world wide.

600,000 new cases in 2 days

22,500 new deaths in 3 days @oli3be

"Today we sit wearing masks and watching the pandemic&rsquos body count rise because the CCP failed in its promises. reading new headlines of repression in Hong Kong and Xinjiang. seeing staggering statistics of Chinese trade abuses that cost American jobs. " - @SecPompeo

The universe is a dark forest. Every civilization is an armed hunter stalking through the trees like a ghost . trying to tread without sound . The hunter has to be careful, because everywhere in the forest are stealthy hunters like him.

"The only way to truly change Communist China is to act on the basis of what its leaders do, not what they say. President Reagan dealt with the Soviets on the basis of 'trust but verify.' When it comes to the CCP, I say, 'Distrust and verify.'" - @SecPompeo

US COVID19 will be done in 4 weeks with a total reported death below 170,000. How will we know it is over? Like for Europe, when all cause excess deaths are at normal level for week. Reported COVID19 deaths may continue after 25 Aug. & reported cases will, but it will be over.

Researchers reconstructed the likely cause of the outbreak at a Toennies Group slaughterhouse in Rheda-Wiedenbrueck, where about 1,500 workers contracted the virus.

WRONG - Full Article

No Consent for a Second Casino

The current State Government has not established community consent for a second casino on the Gold Coast, a city of only 600,000 people. It is morally reprehensible for them to impose a second casino on us and runs totally against their claim that they are a 'consultative government.'

The current Labor State Government and their LNP predecessors have never established a mandate or a social licence to inflict a second casino, aka 'Integrated Resort Development' (IRD), aka 'Global Tourism Hub' onto the Gold Coast community.

And more specifically, during the 2015 election campaign and since being elected the Labor Government has been made well aware of the historical community opposition to Crown land, public open spaces or public parks being made available for cruise ship terminals or casino developments whether the location be The Spit, Broadwater, Southport or any other location on the Gold Coast.

No Business Case for a Second Casino

The term 'Integrated Resort Development' (IRD) was hijacked by the International Gaming Industry two decades ago. The 'Integrated Resort' business model is in fact a 'Segregated Resort' business model with the core business being gambling.

The casino, hotel, apartment, retail, marina, hospitality 'resort' designs which the Gaming Industry push as IRD's are all located in the one privately-owned area/compound, and merely replicate and compete with all the existing local tourism activities and local businesses.

These 'IRD' designs are engineered to trap and coerce the client/guest into never leaving the resort ('because everything you need is here') and thus a tourist's entire spend is within the one private resort.

In the case of ASF China's SRD proposal on The Spit, one look at their consortium partners revealed that the emerging Chinese tourist market would pre-pay their package tours to ASF's casino-resort through a Chinese mainland-based company, 'Youth Travel Agency Limited' and fly on 'China Southern Airlines' to casino-owned shuttle buses, transporting guests/clients directly to the ASF SRD aka casino-resort. Guests would be segregated from all other local tourism, recreational, business, hospitality and entertainment activities. At best, a tourist information centre in the SRD may offer local tours or theme-park tickets but like the cruise industry, by garnering a huge commission from local businesses for signing up the ASF guests to take tours or to visit other local establishments.

The Segregated Resort Development business model not only steals market share from existing local businesses and tourism operators but also monopolises the emerging Chinese Tourist market on the Gold Coast.

The Gold Coast Community has now exposed the term 'Integrated Resort Development' as misleading and an attempt to conceal the core business of 'gambling'. In response, the International Gaming Industry has now invented an equally insidious PR-spin term, 'Global Tourism Hub' (GTH), as their euphemism for a 'Casino'.

What is most evident with IRDs and GTHs is 'casino entrapment' where the client/guest is encased in windowless rooms and has no idea whether it is night or day, losing their interest in being outdoors or partaking in other healthier tourism activities.

The core money-maker for casinos is poker machines. Recent estimates reveal that the Gold Coast is at saturation point for the number of pokies the community can sustain without greater social and financial harm to the community. So a new casino would have to operate their core business without pokies income or cannibalise pokies from existing, smaller institutions such as Gold Coast RSL, Sports, Surf Life Saving and Service Clubs.

The President of the People's Republic of China has shut down the movement of large sums of money leaving China and declared that gambling in China and touting for casino customers in China are illegal. Consequently, the President has shut down the avenues for Chinese money-launderers, aka 'high-rollers', to use the International Gaming Industry and foreign casinos for their activities.

Therefore, the business model has collapsed for 'high-roller casinos' such as James Packer's Barangaroo casino and the casino ASF were proposing for the Gold Coast. Packer is now asking for poker-machine licences to entrap local gamblers, so that he can make up for the 20-45% predicted loss in profits from the Chinese shut-down on money-laundering, high-rollers.

Also, the Gaming-Casino Industry is becoming increasingly automated. In international casinos many of the jobs are now reduced to filling gaming machines and loading cards into mechanised card-dealers. These are not the 'Jobs for Our Kids' that we see as befitting their career aspirations.

The Wrong Model - Las Vegas

The City of Las Vegas and its original casinos were constructed in the Nevada desert ostensibly by mobsters and criminals for tax avoidance and money-laundering purposes. Cheap land and no other competing activities provided a haven for casino developers and operators and their 'associates'. Behind the bright lights and some high quality entertainment components of the Las Vegas casinos there still remains a criminal underbelly as revealed by British journalist, Trevor McDonald, in his recent TV documentary, Las Vegas:

"Las Vegas has always cast long shadows. After four decades of mob rule that ruined thousands of lives, the city is still dealing in unaccounted for untraceable money."

The Minister for Innovation and Tourism Industry Development, Hon. Kate Jones, recently returned from a trip to Las Vegas. In 2017, State Government officials and GCCC officials met or dined with a senior executive from Caesar's Palace Casino - Las Vegas, at a 5-star restaurant on The Spit while discussing a second casino for the Gold Coast. Likewise, the Las Vegas-based gaming company MGM International has also been in discussions with government officials regarding their interests in a second casino for regional Queensland.

In recent times, these two Casino megaliths have displayed questionable financial and ethical records and behaviour. Caesar's has emerged from its $18 billion bankruptcy in the USA, filed under Chapter 11, having recently concluded a settlement with US Officials. And yet, Queensland Government and Council officials believe it is appropriate to conduct discussions with Caesars regarding a second casino on the Gold Coast? What about the probity issues regarding Caesars bankruptcy?

In 2017, MGM Grand Resort - Las Vegas, was the site of the biggest mass shooting in the USA by a single shooter. Fifty-eight innocent people were murdered while attending an outdoor Country and Western concert and over 500 injured by a gunman holed up inside an MGM Grand Casino hotel room.

The families of the victims and injured began a class action against MGM because the killer somehow managed to make approximately 30 undetected trips from his car to his hotel room carrying dozens of weapons and thousands of rounds of ammunition without raising the suspicions of hotel-casino security.

The morally and ethically bereft MGM has now launched a counter-suit against the victims and their families to avoid liability under a dubious 'terrorism' legal loophole in a cynical exercise to string out and potentially sabotage the class-actions of the victims.

How can Minister Jones justify discussions with these two gambling organisations let alone consider them as suitable for a second casino licence on the Gold Coast or anywhere in Queensland?

The Wrong Focus - Tourism, Jobs and Economy

The ASF China Casino consortium was exposed for publishing wildly exaggerated jobs and economic figures for their Wavebreak Island casino/cruise ship terminal proposal, figures that were constantly parroted by the Mayor of the Gold Coast. They suggested that during construction there would be 36,000 jobs and 36,000 ongoing jobs once the casino and cruise terminal were operational, bringing $12 billion in economic benefits.

And yet, one of the largest developments in Queensland's history, the Queens Wharf 'IRD' development in Brisbane cited only 2000 jobs during construction and $4 billion in economic benefit. So jobs and economic figures put out by foreign developers (and certain government officials) in relation to a proposed second Gold Coast casino are likely to be 'rubbery' or false.

Moreover, the casino developers stalking the Gold Coast notoriously avoid quantifying how many new jobs will be created in comparison to existing jobs that will simply be redeployed to their project how many local jobs will be created in contrast to interstate and foreign workers being imported how many jobs will be short-term in contrast to ongoing permanent jobs or distinguishing between the number of fulltime, casual or part-time jobs or quantifying how much of the 'economic benefit' will remain in Australia, let alone the Gold Coast.

Minister Jones is totally out of step with the International and Australian Tourism Industry with her focus on a second casino for the Gold Coast as a potential tourist attraction post-Commonwealth Games and at a time when we are trying to once again position ourselves as a sports, fitness, health, outdoor, nature-based, safe and family friendly destination for visitors and tourists.

For instance, a recent Tourism Australia survey of over 13,000 international tourists has revealed the 'Most Appealing Australian Attractions' to our international visitors.

At the top of the list are:
"Australian Beaches" at 53% appeal and "Australian Wildlife" at 46%

And at the bottom of the list:
"casinos, nightclubs and bars" at 12% and 'luxury accommodation" at 17%

Why is the Minister for Tourism ignoring the peak body, Tourism Australia, whose information and advice she should be heeding, particularly as their findings relate directly to the natural and human assets already available in the Southport, Broadwater and Southport Spit locations?

Why isn't Minister Jones supporting ethical and innovative businesses such as eco & nature tourism, adventure/sports/fitness/health tourism, science and medical research and morally acceptable jobs such as Park Rangers, Botany, Marine Biology, Film-making, Coastal Management, Visual and Performing Arts, IT and Software Development, Medical Research, Bio-technology, Dive, Surf and Sail Schools etc. in her portfolio of Innovation, Tourism Industry Development and Commonwealth Games?

The Wrong Policy - 'Market-led Approach'

Minister Jones has stated publicly that the State Government is about to open a 'market-led approach' to private proposals for a Global Tourism Hub (aka casino) in the Gold Coast suburb of Southport.

The post-Millennium fad with successive Queensland Governments (Labor and LNP) of inviting 'market-led approaches', especially on public assets, Crown-land, public open spaces and parks is not an appropriate 'Government Policy Setting'. It is an absolute abandonment of Government Policy-Making responsibilities.

To give over the 'vision' and planning of Queensland's future to foreign, interstate or local entrepreneurs and developers, who are motivated almost purely by personal profit, self interest or greed, is an appalling way to administer good governance and can lead to monumental and irreversible failures in serving the interests of the citizens of Queensland.

The ASF Consortium proposal was an example of the potential social, moral, ethical, environmental and economic disaster the 'Market-led Approach' brings to a community such as the Gold Coast.

Mr John Strano, who was present at Save Our Spit's meeting (17/09/15) with the then Labor Minister for State Development, Dr Anthony Lynham, leads the public servant pack in his blind advocating for 'Market-led Approaches' as a permanent State Government Policy when he claimed the following in a recorded interview in 2008:

"You [state government] be in the market to know what a company wants to do. And then you find how you can fulfil their needs. So they do their thing in your place. You don't tell 'em what to do. They know what they wanna do"

Strano was the 'Special Advisor' to the Chief Executive Officer, David Edwards, of the 'Special Projects Unit' in the Dpt. of State Development (DSD) at the time of SOSA's meeting with Minister Lynham.

This 'Special Projects Unit' was responsible for conducting the dubious ASF China casino process on The Spit and the design and implementation of the associated, highly-flawed 'community consultation' process in early 2017.

Strano has previously come under the scrutiny of the Queensland Integrity Commission for his involvement in the contentious 'Berry Fruit Juice' affair in the Beattie Government era.

Strano's attitude (and presumably Minister Jones') under the 'market-led approach' is to put public assets, public parks and open spaces such as Gold Coast beaches, islands, waterways, parks, open space and spaces of high community value on the Spit and Broadwater under enormous pressure to be privatised and/or commercialised. It also wastes public servants' time and tax-payer funds to be constantly put under pressure to assess a multitude of crazy (and often illegal) development ideas in contrast to the rare and occasional proposal which adheres to existing planning and environmental laws and community expectations and is proposed for privately-owned land rather than public land.

The Wrong Place - Southport

Minister Jones' announcement regarding the opening up of the Gold Coast suburb of Southport to market-led approaches for a second Casino is totally contrary to the policies and planning strategies of previous Labor and LNP State governments and the GCCC who had earmarked Southport as a centre for Academia, Education, Health, Business, Science, Elite Sports, Research and IT industries.

One location originally on offer was the State and Council-owned Broadwater Tourist Park. However, following a community backlash this site seems to have been taken off the list of potential Southport casino-sites, for the moment.

Another potential location signalled to the International Gaming Industry by Minister Jones is Carey Park, a public park fronting the Australia Fair Shopping Centre, opposite the Broadwater Parklands. Carey Park is named after the Carey Family who established the first Carey's Corner Store in Southport in the early part of the 1900s.

Much of Carey Park's public green-space was turned into extra car-parking to compensate for the loss of public carpark spaces during the construction of the light-rail through Southport. Repatriation of Carey Park to a green-space was meant to take place at the completion of the Commonwealth Games. Carey Park also borders the Queens Park Tennis Club, Southport Bowls Club and an ASF China development site.

Minister Jones would not rule out the option of Carey Park when questioned by the Member for Southport in the Qld Parliament (19/09/18). "Carey Park next to the Broadwater Parklands remains in play as the Gold Coast casino site after the State Government today refused to rule it out." (GCB 19/09/18)

Minister Jones stated, ". we will make sure there is full community consultation as we move forward with this project."

This sounds very much like the previous LNP State Government and their 'community consultations' for the (now discredited) ASF China casino proposal for The Spit when Edwards was Director-General of the Dpt. of State Development (DSD) that is, it appears that the Labor State Government will consult the community on what kind of casino we will get but not ask the community for our consent to have a second casino in Southport or anywhere else on the Gold Coast.

Apparently the 'Community Consultation' process for the second Cairns casino licence was conducted from 20th December 2017 until early February 2018, when Cairns residents and businesses were flat out dealing with holiday-makers at a peak tourist time or on holidays themselves and not in Cairns.

Carey Park and the southern Broadwater Parklands now live under threat of the negative impacts of a high-rise casino-resort and residential apartments in an era when the Community has repeatedly told all levels of government that no public parks, open space, beaches or waterways on the Gold Coast should be made available to or compromised by private or commercial interests such as cruise ship terminals or Gaming Industry interests.

Carey Park is directly opposite one of the most popular family parks and children's playgrounds on the entire Gold Coast at the Broadwater Parklands. If Carey Park is offered as a Casino site it will physically and figuratively cast a dark shadow across the families and children who currently flock to this favourite area of the Broadwater Parklands.

The sites mentioned above and other privately-owned sites suggested for potential casino construction behind Queens Park Tennis Club, Southport Bowls and Croquet Clubs and the now demolished Star of the Sea Convent site are all within walking distance of three major schools:

Southport State High School - "Independent Public School located in the heart of Gold Coast's central business district, Southport".

The Southport School (TSS) - "Independent Anglican day and boarding school for boys "(P-12).

St. Hilda's School - "Independent Anglican day and boarding school for girls" (P-12).

Ethics at St Hilda's School:

"Education does more than prepare for the world of work and wages it equips people to make decisions based on reasoned judgments and to live responsibly with the decisions they make" (Johnson, 1977).

"There is increasing recognition that young people today are growing up in a world characterised by multi-cultural, multi-ethnic and multi-religious plurality. Many commentators contend that such rapid change, particularly within the western world, has resulted in societies with little social cohesion and a diminishing sense of common purpose and vision for greater community good."

The collective values system, traditionally provided by the triumvirate of home, school and church has been replaced by a relativistic culture where 'anything goes' (Vardy, 2002).

Has Minister Jones so lost her moral compass that she is willing to expose children and their families to the negative impacts of casino culture and gambling on a daily basis in Southport? Is Jones a willing participant in compromising the physical, social and psychological safety of Gold Coast children playing in the Broadwater Parklands or studying in nearby Southport schools? Does Jones have a desire to normalise gambling in the minds of young people through daily exposure to a casino in Southport? Or is she receiving bad advice and misinformation from senior public servants in her department?

The Wrong Industry - Gambling

To further support the argument that a casino is the wrong industry for Southport, the International Gaming Industry has recognised that a new generation of potential gamblers will not be satisfied with current gaming-machines activities (aka pokies) because of their exposure to skill-based computer and online video games.

"The demand for traditional gaming products is waning, and waning relatively quickly," warns Queensland's Commissioner for Liquor and Gambling David Ford. "Unless the industry can counteract that, gaming machines may well finish up going the way of bingo."

(The Age. Poking around for a new spin by Nick Toscano - 1st September 2018)

When David Edwards was Director-General of the Dpt. of State Development (DSD) under the LNP Qld. Government, DSD spent $22,121 of taxpayer funds sending two of its staff and Gaming Commissioner, David Ford, to Las Vegas during the 2013-2014 Financial Year on an "Integrated resort and casino sounding" trip.

(DSD Overseas Expenditure Register 2013-2014).

Victorian and NSW gambling regulators have received their first applications seeking to roll out a vastly new breed of poker machine - so-called "skill-based" gaming machines - which look and feel more similar to video games, determine payouts based on player ability as a well as chance, and are aimed squarely at drawing in Millennials. mixing an element of skill with a game of random chance might exacerbate an "illusion of control" punters feel they may have over the game.

The pokies industry - [have] failed to find widespread appeal among younger people, who consider them mindless and boring. Jurisdictions in the US states of Nevada and New Jersey. have recently passed laws permitting the roll-out of the skill-based slot machines. beside the rows of ordinary slot machines at the world's biggest and best-known casinos run by the likes of Caesars Entertainment and MGM Resorts.

Even for top-end casinos, revenue from pokies accounts for nearly as much as all the ritzy main-floor table games combined.

(The Age. 1st September 2018)

The gaming industry is therefore developing and trialling gaming machines which carry the perception that skilled players can win and euphemistically calling this Videogame Tourism.

This focus on 'videogame gambling' is a strategy to addict younger players and a new generation of gamblers who are currently not engaged in casino and pokies-based gambling activities in so-called, Global Tourism Hubs, aka casinos.

In our opinion it is an unconscionable decision by Minister Jones to open up Southport to 'market-led' approaches to a second casino by private developers and the Gaming Industry right in the heart of local Southport family parks, children's playgrounds and schools when 'coincidentally' at the same time the Gaming Industry is developing gaming machines specifically targeted at the current videogame interests of those children and young people.

The Wrong Advice

The key advisor to the Labor Tourism Minister, Kate Jones, appears to be David Edwards, Projects Chief Executive - Special Projects Unit in 'Tourism Industry Development'.

David Edwards is the son of Sir Llew Edwards who was the Liberal Party leader, Deputy Premier and Treasurer in the Bjelke-Peterson Government (1978-1983). David Edwards is also the uncle of Sam O'Connor, the current LNP Member for the State seat of 'Bonney' on the Gold Coast.

Edwards was a GHD consultant to Santos GLNG, before taking up a position as a Media Advisor to the Qld. National Party. Edwards became Jeff Seeney's Chief of Staff while the LNP were in Opposition and then Seeney's Director-General when the Newman/Seeney government came to power in 2012.

On a salary of $484,000 per annum, questioned Edwards' experience and qualifications in relation to his appointment as Director-General of the Newman Government's Dpt of State Development, Planning and Infrastructure.

Edwards also came under the scrutiny of the Brisbane Courier Mail (Steven Wardill 04/08/13) for his acceptance of gifts, sporting and entertainment tickets as Director-General of DSDPI:

HE COULD be the Newman Government's chief bureaucrat for corporate boxes.

New figures have revealed David Edwards, the Government's hand-picked director-general of the new "department of grunt", has pocketed more than $6000 worth of tickets to sports and theatre events in the 15 months since being appointed.

In March 2012, soon after the LNP success in the Queensland elections and one month before the GCCC election, Gold Coast Mayoral candidate, Tom Tate, a prominent LNP donor, met with the Newman Government to ask for State support to build a cruise ship terminal on the public parks, waterways and open space on the Gold Coast Spit and Broadwater. At the meeting was Department of Roads and Transport Director-General, Michael Caltabiano, Minister for State Development, Jeff Seeney and his Director-General, David Edwards.

On 28 April 2012, Tate was elected Gold Coast Mayor. What followed was a Gold Coast City Council (GCCC) 'market-led approach' for the international development industry to put in proposals for a cruise ship port on the Gold Coast Broadwater and Spit.

The successful proponent would be offered commercial compensation for constructing a ship terminal with permission to construct high-rise apartments, retail, hotels and private marinas covering 100 hectares of Crown-land, public parks, open space, islands, waterways, foreshores and beaches over most of the Gold Coast Spit and Southern Broadwater under the GCCC's Broadwater Marine Project (BMP) process.

Eventually the GCCC BMP process was dropped and taken over by the LNP Government's 'Regional Gaming Licence - IRD' process to include a gaming licence and permission to construct a casino in conjunction with the other commercial developments in the original BMP framework.

ASF China Consortium were miraculously chosen as the only 'possible proponent' for the project by the Seeney/Newman Government under the supervision of Seeney's DSD Director-General, David Edwards, a GCCC Officer (possibly Darren Scott) and the 'independent' probity investigators, PWC.

Mayor Tate's friend and 'long term' lawyer, Tony Hickey, announced himself as Australian spokesperson for ASF and Hickey Lawyers as 'project partners' with ASF.

Although the PWC probity investigation found no outstanding financial or judicial matters relating to the ASF China Consortium, a simple web-search by Save Our Spit Alliance Inc. (SOSA) found several outstanding matters, including:

  • 'ASF unveiled its latest concept plans' -
    yet no plans exist and all the community has been shown is a napkin sketch enhanced by an artist of 5-6 high rise towers on The Spit.
  • 'world-class casino' -
    by what criteria can the community judge whether ASF's casino is 'world class'? No details have been provided by ASF or the DSD and we have no information on who ASF's 'Casino Management' partner(s) are since their first one, GGAM, was dropped because of international court cases against them for alleged breaches of casino management contracts overseas. Given the crime and corruption identified with casinos around the world, knowing the name and history of ASF's proposed casino management partner would be important to government and the community, one would think.
  • And then there are the omissions of information from the DSD public notice, such as the negligence in not notifying the public that ASF's proposal is for high-rise and residential apartments in a non-highrise, non-residential area under the current planning laws, the City Plan 2016.
  • The Spit map on the DSD public notice is also misleading where it designates a 5 hectare section of the Spit as an 'ASF Site' implying that this area is ASF's private real-estate, owned by ASF. This is totally untrue. The area is, in fact, Crown-land (public asset) and not an 'ASF Site' at all. This is where ASF, supported by Minister Lynham's DSD, want to put their proposal but it is not ASF's site.
  • World Bank debarment for ASF's major consortium partner, the China State-owned CCCC Guangzhou Dredging Co Ltd for 8 years from 2009 for 'bribery of local officials, fraud, corruption and tender price fixing' on Philippines National Road Projects.
  • An ongoing NSW Supreme Court Case (2013 -2015) into 'alleged misappropriation of $1.68 million' by one of ASF Group's employees
  • ASF's preferred Casino Management partner, Global Gaming Asset Management, was embroiled in two separate decade-long court cases for alleged breach of casino management contracts with international casinos
  • And later, a dubious financial position for ASF was indicated by ASF's Independent Auditor, Grant Thornton, in an 'Emphasis of Matter' statement. (27/02/15)

SOSA then investigated the LNP-appointed 'probity investigator' and learned that the PWC representative, Darren Black, who apparently headed the probity team and found no outstanding ASF probity matters, was at the time serving as the North Brisbane Regional Chair and on the State Executive of the QLD LNP. He was also a Committee Member of Infrastructure Queensland Association (IAQ) whose stated objective is to secure Government Infrastructure contracts for its private industry members.

When QLD Labor won government in January 2015, having campaigned on the halting of the cruise ship terminal and private/commercial developments on Wavebreak Island and the Broadwater, strangely, and despite his history and background, David Edwards was re-employed by the Palaszczuk/Trad Labor Government in Dr Anthony Lynham's, Department of State Development (DSD).

Initially, Edwards was appointed Director-General but then re-assigned to the role of Director of Integrated Developments (Casinos) and Major Projects which later became the DSD 'Special Projects Unit'.

Edwards in his new role with the Labor Government appears to have neglected to inform Minister Lynham about the following instruction to Tate and the ASF Consortium by Lynham's LNP predecessor (Deputy Premier -Jeff Seeney) that if ASF were successful in gaining a casino licence for crown-land on the Gold Coast, under the IRD process it was expected that:

'. a binding agreement would be reached that any gaming licence granted would be conditional on the prior establishment and ongoing operation of a successful cruise ship terminal'.

(Seeney to Tate correspondence - tabled in Parliament, 12th February 2014 - Hansard.

In 2015, Minister Lynham's DSD issued a Request for Detailed Plan (RFDP) from ASF Consortium for an IRD on 6 hectares of crown-land on the Gold Coast Spit despite ASF no longer being required by the Labor Government to build a ship terminal.

The first occasion that Min. Lynham appeared to have been made aware of the Seeney 'no cruise ship terminal, no casino licence' directive was when SOSA tabled it at our face-to-face meeting with Lynham and several senior public servants at Old Parliament House on 17th September 2015. Edwards was not present at the meeting.

SOSA also mentioned to Minister Lynham that Edward's 'Special Projects Unit' was publishing misinformation on the Labor Government DSD website that ASF Consortium were chosen as the 'preferred proponents' for an IRD (aka casino) on The Spit.

We pointed out to Minister Lynham that if ASF were eventually unsuccessful in being granted the tender/contract to build their IRD, and they perceived they were the 'preferred' proponents (rather than their true status as 'possible' proponents) there would be a sovereign risk that the State Government would have to pay them significant financial compensation.

Meanwhile, ASF continued to misinform the Australian Stock Exchange in correspondence that they were 'preferred proponents' for the Gold Coast IRD project.

The 'market-led approach' aficionado, John Strano ('Special Advisor' to Edwards), was present at our meeting with Minister Lynham and blurted out:

'Possible. Preferred. It's all the same!'

The Edwards' 'Special Projects Unit' continued to publish the misinformation regarding ASF's 'preferred' status on the Queensland Government - Department of State Development website:

Queensland Government - State Development website:

"Gold Coast specific FAQs
How did the ASF Consortium become the Queensland Government's preferred proponent for the Integrated Resort Development?"
(DSD website last updated on 09 February 2017)

The Labor Government eventually cancelled the ASF Casino proposal on The Spit in October 2017. In February 2018, the State Government paid ASF China Consortium a reported $9.1 million in 'compensation'.

Other curious facts regarding the second Gaming Licence for the Gold Coast under the 'guidance' and advice of David Edwards include:

  • PWC, previously hired by the LNP Government as the probity investigators into ASF Consortium, became a major partner in the ASF Consortium the year following their probity investigation into ASF, headed by Darren Black.
  • Subsequent to the PWC listing as a 'project partner' with ASF, Edwards received a 'gift' from PWC, the 'donor' being Darren Black, in the form of a lunch (value $70) at the PWC Boardroom on 22 October 2015. The reason given in the DSD Gifts Register for the lunch (July-Dec 2015) was to "network with allied professionals".
  • ASF's major consortium partner, the China State-owned China State Construction Engineering Co. is responsible for 'nearly bankrupting the nation of the Bahamas' by not completing a $3 billion IRD project and walking away from the project with buildings incomplete and workers unpaid.
  • ASF's major consortium partner, CCCC Guangzhou Dredging Co. is revealed to Minister Lynham (17/09/15) to be involved in constructing the Chinese Government's illegal (military) islands in the South China Sea.
  • The April-June 2016 DSD 'Gifts Register' reveals that Edwards received a gift from CCCC Guangzhou Dredging Co of a "Chinese embroidered double-sided table screen" valued at "$100". Recipients of gifts are required to give, 'the reason the gift is a benefit to the Queensland community.' Edwards stated the gift to him was "to build goodwill and improves relationships relevant to department objectives."
  • In April-June 2016, Edwards and Strano also received a dinner and lunch each from CCCC Guangzhou Dredging Co for a total value of $300 in prestigious restaurants in the Chinese city of Guangzhou to "build relationships with trade mission delegates."
  • Following Tate's election to the Gold Coast Mayoral Office in 2012, Tate's campaign manager, Simone Holzapfel, was employed by the GCCC on 'major projects', including the GCCC's 'Broadwater Marine Project' and the proposal by ASF.
    Holzapfel left the GCCC and was appointed to the position of 'key strategist for ASF consortium' in September 2014, 'as it finalises details for its planned $7.5 billion Broadwater cruise ship terminal' (GCB 22/10/14) and casino-resort development.
    "ASF would be using her as a conduit to Tom Tate and the mayoral office. That would be the reason they employed her. They are not dumb," a lobbyist said. (GCB 22/10/14)
  • Edwards permitted a bogus community group named 'Better Our Spit' (no ABN or Qld Incorporated Associations registration) to set up a stall and hand out glossy brochures promoting the ASF proposal at the Labor Government's DSD conducted 'community consultation day' at Southport High School (26/03/17). Community members attending the day, discovered that ASF Consortium had paid for the stall, printing and staff (one of whom one was the local Young Qld LNP President) through the PR Company and registered development lobbyist, Simone Holzapfel and her company, SHAC Communications.
  • Edward's DSD 'Special Projects Unit' created and conducted the 2017 ASF IRD 'community consultation' process for a Spit casino with the exclusion of two major parks on The Spit (Philip Park and Muriel Henchman Park) despite the Premier having pledged that all the existing parks on The Spit would be a part of any community consultation for ASF's IRD proposal.
    SOSA surmised in an online article that that the DSD through the 'Special Projects Unit' had 'done a secret deal' to exclude Philip Park because Mayor Tate had ear-marked it for his 'oceanside cruise ship terminal' proposal (given the Labor Government no longer required ASF to construct a CST on The Spit to gain the second Gaming Licence on the Gold Coast).
    Following the publication of the article "Has Lynham Done Secret Deals with Tate?" and community complaints, the Premier's Office intervened to ensure the two parks were included in the consultation process.

The Wrong Use of Ratepayers' Money

In late 2016, the Gold Coast City Council committed over $850,000 of ratepayers' money to a report for an EPBC Act - MNES referral to the Federal Government and the commissioning of an 'oceanside cruise ship feasibility study' in relation to Mayor Tate's proposal for a cruise terminal at Philip Park, The Spit,

The company awarded the contract by GCCC (apparently without an open tender process) went to PWC - an ASF project partner - in conjunction with two other ASF China Consortium listed 'project partners', AECOM and MacroPlan Dimasi.

The head of the PWC unit who conducted both the EPBC Act Referral report and the OCST feasibility study is Darren Black - the original ASF probity investigator.

Only a heavily redacted 'OCST Feasibility Study' report has ever been released publicly by Council with the equivalent of 56 pages of the 286 pages missing, including the redaction of almost the entire 'Risk Assessment' chapter. The study cost the equivalent of $2797 per page.

The GCCC committed another $10-12 million to 'further feasibility studies' by PWC and the other two ASF connected entities however, Council officers claim further studies have been halted until the current State Government 'Spit Master Plan' process has been completed in late 2019.

The Wrong Use of Taxpayer's Money

From July 2013 to June 2017, spending on overseas travel by public servants through the Department of State Development in specific relation to the two new 'Gaming Licences for Regional Queensland' (initiated by LNP State Government in 2013 and continued by the current Labor Government) is in excess of $225,000 of taxpayers' money.

One trip to the USA by DSD staff and an Attorney General staff-member cost taxpayers $40,883. (DSD Overseas Travel Register 2016-2017)

Of the nine overseas trips made by public servants to places including Macau, Singapore, Hong Kong, China, New Zealand, Las Vegas, Manila, 'USA' and 'Asia', David Edwards has travelled on seven of them.

The above figures do not include Edwards' most recent trip (with another staff member from the newly created 'Special Projects Unit' within the Dpt of Tourism) to Las Vegas with Labor Tourism Minister, Kate Jones in June 2018.

The reasons stated in the DSD Overseas Travel Register for Edwards' and his staff's trips include:

"[To] Progress a comprehensive market sounding process associated with potential viability of establishing Integrated Resort developments in Queensland." (2016-2017)

"Consultation with large, reputable casino/resort operators, investors and developers on market appetite in the USA to deliver a regional Integrated Resort Development in Queensland." (2016-2017)

During the 2015-2016 financial year, at the height of the DSD push to allow ASF to build a casino-resort and highrise private-apartment development on The Spit, Edwards and his 'Special Advisor', John Strano, spent $23,102 visiting Hong Kong and China.

It appears that Strano's name has since been removed from the DSD Overseas Travel Register for that trip, despite the CCCC Guangzhou Dredging Co's gift of $300 lunches and dinners to Strano and Edwards at exclusive restaurants in the Chinese city of Guangzhou still being listed in the April-June 2016 DSD 'Gifts Register'.

The Travel Register states the following reasons for Strano and Edwards' Hong Kong/China trip:

"Meet partners in Integrated Resort Development projects in Queensland and inspect tourism and infrastructure projects completed by them to gain fuller understanding of the track record and capabilities of the Asian-based partners in the Queens Wharf and ASF Consortiums [sic]. Also to establish business relationships with those partners to provide comfort to them in relation to future Queensland investments."[our emphasis]

On 14th February 2017, Edwards as a Labor Government senior public servant in the DSD, signed off on a 'gift' to ASF Group Director, Luis Chien (DSD Gifts Register Jan-March 2017). Taxpayers paid for Chien's dinner to the value of "$165"at the "Australia China Business Council Chinese New Year Dinner- Sofitel Brisbane."

The reason stated for Edwards' gift to Chien is:

"Valuable networking opportunity with community, government and industry representatives."

The very same day of Edwards' gift to the ASF Director, Luis Chien (14th February 2017), ASF Consortium Pty Ltd donated $13,200 to the Queensland LNP (ECQ Returns).

While it is debatable whether Edwards enjoys exerting his influence over new (naive?) State Ministers, there is no doubt he enjoys the 'benefits' of operating from inside "Special Project Units" within various State Government Departments.

The Wrong Era

It would be immoral and unethical for Minster Jones' and her chief advisor, David Edwards, to put young people and the financially vulnerable at risk given the proven negative impacts of gambling on the social, physical and mental health of those groups and individuals.

In 2016, the 'biggest gambler losses per resident adult' in the World was Australia, well above Singapore, Ireland, Finland and the United States (source: H2 Gambling Capital).

The Gold Coast Community sees the era of multiple gaming-houses and casinos in our city (or anywhere in Queensland) as 'last-century 1980s' thinking for tourism and totally inappropriate in relation to current community expectations and values.

Minister Jones should be taking the 'Innovation' component of her portfolio more seriously and exploring it more broadly and in more detail.

Our children want morally acceptable and sustainable jobs, not jobs that prey on the addictions of the vulnerable in our community. Our young people desire aspirational jobs and careers in ethical businesses and activities such as:

Electronics IT and Computer Technology, Design and Programming Software Development
Medical Research and Technology Medicine, Dentistry, Nursing and Aged Care
Sports Science Elite Sport - participation, training and coaching
Fitness and Health Industries
Education Sector -
Private and Public, Tertiary, Post-Primary, Primary, Early Childhood
Outdoor Education Technology and Trades
Marine Biology Coastal Management and Engineering
Wildlife Management Veterinary Science
Climate Science Renewable Energies
Adventure/Nature/Eco Tourism Wildlife Guide Whale Watching Guide
Charter Fishing, Boating and Sailing
Dive, Sail and Surf Instructors and Schools
Professional Surfing, Surf Tourism, Surf Industry - design, manufacturing, retail, fashion
Interior and Fashion Design E-Commerce
Architecture Landscape Design
Law Police, Fire, Paramedic and Emergency Services
Hospitality, Food Technology, Nutrition
Performing Arts - Music, Theatre, Dance, Film, Television,
Creative Arts - Writing and Visual Arts
Journalism and Communications Industries

The State Government and Gold Coast City Council have not established a social licence to impose a second casino on our city and therefore do not have the consent of the Gold Coast Community to do so.

The questionable behaviour of key Government personnel, private industry representatives, foreign companies and their history of various and numerous boardroom lunches, restaurant dinners, gifts, donations, overseas trips, undeclared party-political affiliations, flawed community consultations, redacted reports and dubious tender and probity practices, casts a huge shadow over the whole process currently surrounding the potential granting of a 'second casino' Gaming Licence for the Gold Coast.

Rather than imposing a second casino on Gold Coast residents and the inevitable expansion of gambling culture among our young people, Minister Jones and her State Government colleagues should be supporting the building of strong communities based on the natural and human assets that already exist in the different neighbourhoods, suburbs and regions of the Gold Coast.

Strong and united Communities take better care of the welfare, education, jobs and economic circumstances of their people than the Gaming Industry ever has and ever will.

Mission Chinese Shut Down by Department of Health and More News - Recipes

On July 21, the US abruptly demanded that the Chinese Consulate-General in Houston cease all operations and events within a time limit. This decision seriously violates international law, basic norms governing international relations and the Consular Convention Between China and the United States. China strongly condemns and firmly opposes this move that sabotages China-US relations, and urges the US side to immediately revoke its erroneous decision.

The Chinese Embassy and Consulates-General in the United States have always been committed to the healthy and stable development of China-US relations, to China-US exchanges and cooperation and to the two peoples' friendship. The US move has seriously damaged the regular exchanges and cooperation between the people of the southern part of the United States and China and their right for consular services from the Chinese government. It is completely against the people's will.

Taking into account of the desire and needs of the southern part of the US for continued exchanges and cooperation with China and the practical difficulties that may come up, the Chinese Embassy in the United States will temporarily take over the work of the Consulate-General in Houston, and continue the various services for the people in the consular district.

Please contact the Embassy or the Call Center for Consular Assistance and Protection of the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs for any need of consular assistance.

Telephone numbers for consular protection and assistance of the Chinese Embassy and Consulates-General

The Consulate-General in New York :+1-212-6953125

The Consulate-General in San Francisco:+1-415-2168525

The Consulate-General in Los Angeles:+1-213-8078052

The Consulate-General in Chicago:+1-312-7800170

Global Emergency Call Center for Consular Protection and Services : +86-10-12308,+86-10-59913991 .

Note: The consular jurisdiction of the Consulate-General in Houston included eight states in the southern part of the United States and a self-governing commonwealth: Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida and Puerto Rico.

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The Philippine Republic in the Central and Southern Islands

So interwoven were the circumstances of General Aguinaldoʼs Government in Luzon Island with the events of the period between the naval battle of Cavite and the ratification of the Treaty of Paris, that they form an integral and inseparable whole in historical continuity. In the other Islands, however, which followed the revolutionary movement, with more or less adherence to the supreme leadership of Aguinaldo, the local incidents severally constitute little histories in themselves, each such island having practically set up its own government with only the barest thread of administrative intercommunication.

The smaller islands, adjacent to Luzon, cannot be justly included in this category, because their local rule, which naturally succeeded the withdrawal of Spanish administration, was nothing more than a divided domination of self-constituted chiefs whose freebooting exploits, in one instance, had to be suppressed at the sacrifice of bloodshed, and, in another, to succumb to the apathy of the people.

In Yloilo , on December 23, 1898, General Diego de los Rios, in the presence of his staff, the naval commanders and the foreign consuls, formally surrendered the town to the native mayor, prior to his evacuation of Panay Island on the following day. On December 27 an American military force (finally about 3,000 strong) arrived in the roadstead in transports under the command of General Miller in co-operation with two American warships, afterwards supplemented by two others. The Spanish troops having departed, the Filipinos who had assumed control of public affairs made their formal entry into Yloilo to the strains of music and the waving of banners and constituted a government whose effective jurisdiction does not appear to have extended beyond the town and a dayʼs march therefrom. On January 17 an election was held, Raymundo Melliza,1 an excellent man, being chosen president for the term of two years. Business was resumed sugar was being brought from Negros Island, and ships were laden with produce. During the civil [512] administration, which lasted for seven weeks, the absorbing topic was the demand made by General Miller for the surrender of the town. General Millerʼs force had been despatched to Yloilo waters, after the signing of the Treaty of Paris, simply to make a demonstration in view of possible anarchy resulting from the Spanish evacuation. The ratification of that Treaty by a two-thirds Senate majority was not an accomplished fact until February 6 following. There was no certainty that the Senate would confirm the acquisition of the Islands, and in the interval it was not politic to pass from a formal demand for the surrender of Yloilo to open hostilities for its possession. These matters of political exigency were undoubtedly beyond the comprehension of the Ylongos. They attributed to fear the fact that a large fighting-force remained inactive within sight of the town, whereas General Miller was merely awaiting instructions from the capital which the Manila authorities, in turn, were delaying, pending the decision in Washington. Intervening circumstances, however, precipitated military action. On the night of February 4 hostilities had broken out between Aguinaldoʼs troops and the American forces. Insurgent emissaries had brought Aguinaldoʼs messages to the Ylongos to hold the town against the invaders, and on February 7 General Miller received orders from Maj.-General Otis to take Yloilo by force if necessary. General Miller thereupon renewed his demand for the surrender of the place, coupled this time with a declaration that he would bombard it if his demand were refused. Later on he notified the consular body that the bombardment would commence on the 12th of the month. During the seven weeks of native government, petty thefts were frequent an armed insurgent would enter a store and carry off the article selected by him without paying for it but there was no riotous open violence committed against the townspeople or foreign traders. The squabbles between the armed natives and their leaders, however, were several times on the point of producing bloodshed.

According to ex-insurgent General Pablo Araneta, the insurgent army, at the time, in Panay Island was as follows, viz.2:—

Under the leadership of Stationed at Tagálogs Visayos
Fulion Yloilo 250 150
Ananias Diócno Yloilo 400
Pablo Araneta Yloilo 250
Martin Delgado Yloilo 150
Pablo Araneta Molo 100
Silvestre Silvio Antique 150
Detachment of Diócnoʼs forces Cápiz 200
Total all armed with guns 1,250 400

The commander-in-chief of the whole army of 1,650 men was Martin Delgado. The Tagálog contingent was under the leadership of Ananias Diócno, a native of Taal, whose severity in his Cápiz and Yloilo campaigns has left a lasting remembrance. The headquarters of the Visayos was in the parish-house (convento), whilst the Tagálogs were located in the Fine Arts Institute. Their stipulated remuneration was 4 pesos a month and food, but as they had received only 1 peso per month on account, and moreover claimed a rise in pay to 5 pesos, the Visayos, on February 3, assembled on the central plaza of the town and menaced their general officers, who were quartered together in a corner house over a barberʼs shop. They yelled out to their leaders that if they did not give them their pay they would kill them all, sack the town, and then burn it. Thereupon the generals hastened round the town to procure funds, and appeased the Visayos with a distribution of 1,800 pesos. The Tagálogs then broke out in much the same way, and were likewise restrained by a payment on account of arrears due. But thenceforth the insurgent troops became quite uncontrollable and insolent to their officers. The fact that white officers should have solicited their permission to come ashore unarmed could only be interpreted by the Oriental, soldier or civilian, in a way highly detrimental to the white manʼs prestige. The Americansʼ good and honest intentions were only equalled by their nescience of the Malay character. The officers came ashore the townsfolk marvelled, and the fighting-men, convinced of their own invincibility, disdainfully left them unmolested. After the insurgent generals had doled out their pay, the men went round to the shops and braggingly avowed that it was lucky for the shopkeepers that they had got money, otherwise they would have looted their goods. The Chinese shut up their shops from the beginning of the troubles, leaving only a hole in the closed door to do a little business, as they were in constant fear for the safety of their lives and their stocks. A great many families packed up their belongings and went over to Negros Island in small schooners. The little passenger-steamers plying between Yloilo and Negros were running as usual, crowded to the brim, and flying the Philippine flag without interruption from the Americans. Amongst the better classes opinions on the situation were much divided. The best Philippine and Spanish families expressed their astonishment that the Americans made no attempt to take the town immediately after the Spanish evacuation. There were foreign merchants anxious to delay the American investment because, meanwhile, they were doing a brisk trade, and there were others longing to see the town in the hands of any civilized and responsible Power. Delegates from one party or the other, including the native civil government, went off in boats almost daily to parley with General Miller in the roadstead, each with a different line of real or sophistic [514] argument. The best native families, the foreigners of all classes—those who desired a speedy entry of the Americans and those who sought to delay it—were agreed as to the needlessness and the mistaken policy of announcing a bombardment. Yloilo is a straggling, open town. The well-to-do people asked, “Why bombard?” There were no fortifications or anything to destroy but their house property. Plans were voluntarily offered showing how and at which points a midnight landing of 400 or 500 troops could be secretly effected for a sunrise surprise which would have cleared the town in an hour of every armed insurgent. The officers ashore declared they were ready and as to the men, they were simply longing for the fray, but the word of command rested with General Miller.

In the evening of February 10 the native civil government held an extraordinary session in the Town Hall to discuss the course to be adopted in view of the announced bombardment. The public, Filipinos and foreigners, were invited to this meeting to take part in the debate if they wished, Raymundo Melliza, Victorino Mapa, Martin Delgado, and Pablo Araneta, being amongst those who were present. It was proposed to burn the town. Melliza vehemently protested against such a barbarous act, and asked why they should destroy their own property? What could they gain by pillage and flames?3 But a certain V—— and his party clamoured for the destruction of the place, and being supported by an influential lawyer (native of another province) and by one of the insurgent generals, Melliza exclaimed, “If you insist on plunder and devastation, I shall retire altogether,” whereupon a tremendous hubbub ensued, in the midst of which Melliza withdrew and went over to Guimarás Island. But there were touches of humour in the speeches, especially when a fire-eating demagogue gravely proposed to surround an American warship with canoes and seize her and again when Quintin Salas declared that the Americans would have to pass over his corpse before the town surrendered! Incendiaries and thieves were in overwhelming majority at the meeting naturally (to the common people in these Islands) an invitation to despoil, lay waste and slay, bolstered up by apparent authority, found a ready response, especially among the Tagálog mercenaries who had no local attachment here. The instigators of this barbarity sought no share of the spoils they had no property interests in Yloilo, but they were jealous of those who had. The animosity of Jaro and Molo against Yloilo had existed for years, the formersʼ townspeople being envious of the prosperous development of Yloilo (once a mere fishing-village), which obscured the significance of the episcopal city of Jaro and detracted from the social importance of the rich Chinese half-caste [515] residential town of Molo.4 Chiefly from these towns came the advocates of anarchy, whose hearts swelled with fiendish delight at the prospect of witnessing the utter ruin and humiliation of their rivals in municipal prestige. Yloilo, from that moment, was abandoned to the armed rabble, who raided the small shops for petroleum to throw on to the woodwork of the houses prior to the coming onslaught. The bombardment having been announced for the 12th, they reckoned on a full day for burning and sacking the town. But early in the morning of the 11th the steam-launch Pitt, whilst reconnoitring the harbour, was fired upon the launch replied and withdrew. Natives were observed to be busy digging a trench and hastening to and from the cotta at the harbour entrance there was every indication of their warlike intentions. Therefore suddenly, at 9 oʼclock that morning, without further notification, the Americans opened fire. The natives in the cotta fled along the quayway towards the centre of the town under a shower of bullets hurled from the quick-firing guns. The attack on Yloilo was hardly a bombardment proper shells were intentionally thrown over the houses as a warning and burst in suburban open spaces, but comparatively few buildings were damaged by the missiles. In the meantime, from early morn, the native soldiery, followed by a riff-raff mob, rushed hither and thither, throwing firebrands on to the petroleum-washed houses, looting stores, and cutting down whomsoever checked them in their wild career. The Chinese barricaded themselves, but the flames devoured their well-stocked bazaars panic-stricken townsfolk ran helter-skelter, escaping from the yelling bands of bloodthirsty looters. Europeans, revolver in hand, guarded their properties against the murderous rabble an acquaintance of mine was hastening to the bank to deposit ₱3,000 when he was met by the leader S——, who demanded his money or his life one foreign business house was defended by 15 armed Europeans, whilst others threw out handfuls of pesos to stay the work of the pétroleur. The German Vice-Consul, an old friend of mine, went mad at the sight of his total loss a Swiss merchant, my friend for over 20 years, had his fine corner premises burnt down to the stone walls, and is now in comparative poverty. Even Spanish half-castes were menaced and contemptuously called Cachilas5 and the women escaped for their lives on board the schooners in the harbour. Half the town was blazing, and the despairing cries of some, the yells of exultant joy of others, mingled with the booming of the invadersʼ cannon.

Two British warships lying in the roadstead sent boats ashore to receive British subjects, and landed a party of marines, who made gallant efforts to save foreign property. A few British subjects were, however, [516] unable to get away from the town on account of the premature attack of the Americans, which took place on the 11th instead of February 12, as previously announced.

The American assault on the town, which lasted until 1 oʼclock in the afternoon, was immediately followed up by the landing of about 1,000 volunteers, and General Miller found that the prognostications of the townspeople were perfectly just, for the insurgents fled in all directions. There was not a fighting-man left in the town. Some of them continued their hurried flight as far as Santa Barbara and Janiuay. It was evident that a sudden night-landing, without a word about bombardment, would have been just as effective, and would have prevented much misery and loss of life and property. Indeed, the arrival of the American volunteers under these distressing circumstances produced a fresh commotion in Yloilo. Without any warrant private premises were entered, and property saved from the nativesʼ grasp vanished before the eyes of the owners. Finally order was restored through the energetic intervention of American officials, who stationed sentinels here and there to protect what still remained of the townspeopleʼs goods. In due course indemnity claims were forwarded to the military authorities, who rejected them all.

The insurgents still lingered outside the town on the road to Jaro, and General Miller marched his troops, in battle array, against them. A couple of miles out of the town, in the neighbourhood of La Paz, the entrenched enemy was routed after a slight skirmish. The booming of cannon was heard in Yloilo for some hours as the American troops continued their march to Jaro, only molested by a few occasional shots from the enemy in ambush. The rebel chief Fulion and another, Quintin Salas, held out for a short while, gradually beating a retreat before the advancing column. The Tagálogs, once under the command of the semi-civilized Diócno, disappeared in all directions, and finally escaped from the province in small parties in canoes or as best they could. The handful of braves who still thought fit to resist decided to make a stand at Santa Bárbara, but on the arrival of the American troops they dispersed like chaff before the wind. General Miller then relinquished the pursuit and returned to Yloilo to await reinforcements for a campaign through the Island. In the meantime military government was established in Yloilo, the town was policed, trade resumed its normal aspect, the insurgents in the Island gradually increased, but the Philippine Republic in Panay was no more. It was clear to all the most sober-minded and best-educated Ylongos that Aguinaldoʼs government was a failure in Panay at least. The hope of agreement on any policy was remote from its very initiation. Visayos of position, with property and interests at stake, were convinced that absolute independence without any control or protection from some established Power was premature and doomed to disaster. Visayan jealousy of [517] Tagálog predominance had also its influence, but the ruling factor was the Tagálog troopsʼ dictatorial air and brutal conduct, which destroyed the theory of fraternal unity. Self-government at this stage would have certainly led to civil war.

Reinforcements arrived from Manila and the Americans entered upon the pacification of the Island, which needed two years for its accomplishment. The full record of the Panay campaign would be a monotonous recital of scores of petty encounters of analogous character. Pablo Araneta, in co-operation with a Spanish deserter named Mariano Perez, met the Americans several times, and gave better proof of his generalship in retreat than in advance. He operated only in the province of Yloilo, and at Sambang, near Pavía, his party was severely defeated and the “general” fled. Quintin Salas, over whose dead body, he himself declared, the Americans would have to pass before Yloilo surrendered, appeared and disappeared, from time to time, around Dumangas. There was an encounter at Potian with Jolandoni which ended badly for his party. The native priests not only sympathized with the insurgents, but took an active part in their operations. Father Santiago Pamplona, afterwards ecclesiastical-governor of the Visayas (Aglipayan), held a command under Martin Delgado. Father Agustin Piña, the parish priest of Molo and the active adviser in the operations around Pavía—Jaro district, was caught by the Americans and died of “water-cure.”6 The firebrand Pascual Macbanua was killed at Pototan and finally came the most decisive engagement at Monte Sin͠git, between Janiuay and Lambunao. The insurgent generalissimo, Martin Delgado, took the field in person but after a bold stand, with a slight loss on the American side, the insurgents were completely routed and their leader fled. Pablo Araneta, tired of generalship without glory, surrendered to the Americans on December 31, 1899. The war still continued for another year, Martin Delgado being one of the last to declare his defeat. Early in December, 1900, overtures for peace were made to General Miller, the delegates on the insurgent side being Pablo Araneta, Jovito Yusay, and Father Silvestre Apura, whilst Captain Noble represented the Americans. Martin Delgado and his co-leaders soon surrendered. There was no question of conditions but that of convincing the natives of the futility of further resistance and the benefits to them of peace under American rule. With this end in view, delegates went in commission to the several districts. Pablo Araneta, Father Silvestre Apura, Father Práxedes [518] Magálon and Nicolás Roses visited the district of Concepcion (East Panay) in January 1901 and obtained the submission of the people there. Peace was at length agreed upon but the Filipinos were not disposed silently to draw the veil over the past without glamour and pomp, even in the hour of defeat. Therefore, on February 2, 1901, in agreement between the parties, the remnant of the little Panay army made a formal surrender, marching under triumphal arches into the episcopal city of Jaro to stack their arms, between lines of American troops drawn up on either side of their passage, to the strains of peaceful melody, whilst the banners of the Stars and Stripes floated victoriously in the sultry air. Jaro was crowded with visitors to witness this interesting ceremonial. The booths did a bustling trade the whole city was en féte, and the vanquished heroes, far from evincing humiliation, mingled with the mob and seemed as merry as though the occasion were the marriage-feast of the headmanʼs daughter.

But to complete the picture of peace some finishing-strokes were yet needful. Antique Province was still in arms, and a native commission composed of Pablo Araneta, Father Silvestre Apura, Father Práxedes Magálon, Victorino Mapa, Cornelio Melliza, and Martin Delgado proceeded there, and succeeded in concluding peace for the Americans at the end of February, 1901.

The Visayan chief who defied the American invader was no stout patriot who leaves his plough to fight for cherished liberty, and cheerfully returns to it when the struggle ends. The leaders of the little Panay army and their civilian colleagues had to be compensated for their acceptance of American rule. Aguinaldo was captured during the month following the Peace of Panay the war was coming to an end, and Governor W. H. Taft made his provincial tour to inaugurate civil government in the pacified Islands. Martin T. Delgado, the very man who had inflicted such calamities upon the Yloilo people, was appointed, on April 11, to be their first provincial Civil Governor at a salary of $3,000 gold per annum, and held that office until March, 1904. Jovito Yusay was given the provincial government secretaryship with a yearly stipend of $1,800 gold Pablo Araneta was rewarded with the post of President of the Board of Health at an annual salary of $1,500 gold, and Victorino Mapa was appointed a judge of the Supreme Court with an annual emolument of $7,000 gold. In March, 1904, Raymundo Melliza, ex-president of the native civil government, already referred to as the advocate of social order, succeeded Delgado in the civil government of the Yloilo province by popular vote.

Yloilo, formerly the second port of the Philippines, is situated on the right bank of the creek. From the creek point to the square are sheds used for sugar-storing, with, here and there, a commercial or government office between. The most modern thoroughfares are traced with regularity, and there are many good houses. In the square is the [519] church, which at a distance might be mistaken for a sugar-store, the ruins of the Town Hall, the convent, and a few small, fairly well-built houses of stone and wood, whilst all one side was once covered by a fine new block of buildings of brick, stone and wood, with iron roofs.

The Calle Real or High Street is a winding road, which leads through the town into the country. The houses are indescribable—they are of all styles. Without any pretence at architectural adornment, some are high, others low some stand back with several feet of pavement before them, others come forward and oblige one to walk in the road. Here and there is a gap, then a row of dingy hovels. This is the retail trading-quarter and the centre for the Chinese. Going from the square the creek runs along at the back of the right-hand-side houses turning off by the left-hand-side thoroughfares, which cannot be called streets, there is a number of roughly-built houses and a few good ones dispersed in all directions, with vacant, neglected plots between. At the extreme end of the Calle Real is the Government House, built of wood and stone, of good style and in a fair condition, with quite the appearance of an official residence. Before it is a semicircular garden, and in front of this there is a round fenced-in plot, in the middle of which stands a flag-staff. Just past the Government House there is a bridge crossing the Jaro River, which empties itself into the creek of Yloilo, and this creek is connected with that of Otong.7

Yloilo lies low, and is always hot. Quite one-third of the shipping and wholesale business quarter stands on land reclaimed from the swamp by filling up with earth and rubble. The opposite side of the creek, facing the shipping-quarter, is a low marshy waste, occasionally converted into a swamp at certain tides. The creek forms the harbour of Yloilo, which is just as Nature made it, except that there is a roughly-constructed quayway on the left-hand shore on entering. Only vessels of light draft can enter large vessels anchor in the roadstead, which is the channel between Yloilo harbour and Guimarás Island.

The general aspect of Yloilo and its environs is most depressing. In Spanish times no public conveyances were to be seen plying for hire in the streets, and there is still no public place of amusement. The Municipality was first established by Royal Order dated June 7, 1889.

Evidences of the havoc of 1899 are still visible at every turn in Yloilo in the shape of old stone walls, charred remains, battered houses, vacant spaces, etc. On the other hand, there are many innovations [520] since American administration superseded the native civil government. The plaza, till then a dreary open space, is now a pleasant shady promenade electric lighting, an ice-factory, four hotels, one American, one English, and three Philippine clubs, large public schools, an improved quayway, a commodious Custom-house, a great increase of harbour traffic, a superabundance of lawyersʼ and pawnbrokersʼ sign-boards, and public vehicles plying for hire are among the novelties which strike one who knew Yloilo in days gone by. The Press is poorly represented by three daily and one weekly newspapers. Taken as a whole Yloilo still remains one of the most charmless spots in the Archipelago.

The people of Negros Island were in the free enjoyment of local independence since November 6, 1898, the day on which the Spanish Governor, D. Isidro Castro y Cinceros, together with all his official colleagues, capitulated to the revolutionists under the leadership of Aniceto Lacson, Leandro Lacson, Juan Araneta, Nicolás Gales, Simon Lizares, Julio Diaz, and José Montilla. Simultaneously with the prosecution of the Panay Island campaign General Miller opened negotiations for the submission of Negros Island to American sovereignty. At that time the government of the Island was being peacefully administered to the satisfaction of the Negros revolutionists, at least, under the constitution proclaimed by them, and presided over by their ex-commander-in-chief, Aniceto Lacson.8 General Miller therefore commissioned two Filipinos, Esteban de la Rama and Pedro Regalado,9 to proceed to Negros and negotiate terms of surrender to the Americans. For the moment nothing further was demanded than a recognition of American supremacy, and it was not proposed to subvert their local organization or depose their president. Aniceto Lacson accepted these terms, and General Miller formally appointed him Governor of the Island in March, 1899. It is evident, therefore, that no union existed between the local government of Negros and Aguinaldoʼs Republic in Luzon. In fact, when the Tagálog fighting-men, who were everywhere defeated in Panay, made their escape to Negros and raised the cry of insurrection against the Americans, Lacson was constrained to appeal to General Miller to send over troops to quell the movement. Thereupon Colonel Smith was deputed to take troops over to Negros to pursue the common enemy, whilst, in perfect [521] accord with the native governor Lacson, he acted as military governor of the Island. The great cordillera which runs through the centre of the Island from north to south forms a sort of natural barrier between the people of Occidental and Oriental Negros. There are trails, but there are no transversal highroads from one coast to the other, and the inhabitants on each side live as separated in their interests, and, to a certain degree, in their habits, as though they were living in different islands. The people on the eastern side have always strongly opposed anything approaching governmental cohesion with the other side. Moreover, for many years past, the south-eastern district of Negros Island has been affected by sporadic apparitions of riotous religious monomaniacs called Santones (vide p. 189). These conditions, therefore, favoured the nefarious work of the cunning Tagálog and Panay refugees, who found plenty of plastic material in the Negros inhabitants for the fruitful dissemination of the wildest and most fantastic notions anent the horrors awaiting them in the new Anglo-Saxon domination. They found no sympathy with the native government of Occidental Negros, which was as much their enemy as the American troops sent to pursue them, but they entertained the hope that by raising riot in Negros they would draw off troops from Panay, and so favour the movement in that Island. Armed groups rose everywhere against the Americans and the established government. In the south-east the notorious Papa Isio appeared as a Santon, preached idolatry, and drew to his standard a large band of ruffians as skilled as himself in villainous devices. Insurgency, in the true sense of the word, did not exist in Negros opposition to the American domination was merely a pretext to harass, plunder, and extort funds from the planters and property-owners. The disaffected people increased so largely in numbers that Colonel Smith was obliged to call for reinforcements, and the disturbances only came to an end when it was known that the Panay people had formally laid down their arms in February, 1901. Shortly afterwards Governor W. H. Taft visited Negros Island the quasi-autonomous government of that region was modified in conformity with the general plan of provincial civil governments, and on August 9, 1901, Leandro Locsin (Ylongo by birth) succeeded to the civil governorship, with a salary of $2,500 gold, by popular vote.

Notwithstanding the severities imposed on the Cebuános during the last eight months of Spanish rule, the Spaniards were able to evacuate Cebú Island without menace or untoward event. For several months the Governor, General Montero, had held in prison, between life and death, a number of Filipinos of the best families, amongst whom was Julio Llorente, who afterwards became President of Cebú and subsequently a magistrate of the Supreme Court of Manila. General Montero made a compact with a young Philippine lawyer, Sergio Osmeña (afterwards [522] acting-Governor of Cebú) that in exchange for two Spaniards held as hostages in the interior he would release Llorente. Osmeña procured the liberty of the Spaniards, but it was only on the eve of his departure that Montero permitted the prison doors to be opened.

On December 26, 1898, a chartered merchant steamer called at Cebú to transport the retiring Spaniards to Zamboanga, the place of concentration designated by General Rios. The farewell was sadly brief, and almost in silence the Governor handed over the government property to a most worthy and loyal Cebúano, Pablo Mejía, who was my esteemed friend for many years. The Governor even offered Mejía about 40 rifles but Mejía, a lover of order, wrongly believing that a long period of tranquillity was about to set in, declined to accept them. And without any manifestation of regret on the part of the governed, the last vestige of Spanish authority vanished from the city which, 333 years before, was the capital of the Philippine Islands.

On the day following the departure of the Spaniards the Cebuános established a provincial government in agreement with the Katipunan party of Luzon, General Aguinaldoʼs direct representative being Luis Flores, the chief leader of the armed Cebuános, to whom Pablo Mejía handed over all that he had received from the ex-governor Montero. From its establishment up to the last day of its existence, this government used the seal and stamps of the Philippine Republic, and was constituted as follows, viz.:—

President and Commander-in-Chief Luis Flores.
Vice-President Julio Llorente.
Commissioner of Police Gen. Arcadio Maxílom.
Treasurer-General Pablo Mejía.
Minister of Justice Miguel Logarta.
Secretary to the Council Leoncio Alburo.

Municipal Council (Junta Popular)

The above constitution was in conformity with a decree of General Aguinaldo dated June 18, 1898, and countersigned by Apolinario Mabini. Local representatives of the provincial government were appointed throughout the Island for the collection of taxes and the maintenance of order, and the system worked fairly smoothly until [523] the arrival of the Americans in Cebú City, February 21, 1899. On that date the American gunboat Petrel and a large steam-launch suddenly appeared in Cebú harbour. The United States Vice-Consul seems to have been the only person who had received prior advice of their intended arrival. The commander of the Petrel sent a message ashore saying that he desired an interview with the government representatives and that he demanded the surrender of the city, and gave 14 hours to the people to consider his demands but, as a matter of fact, the negotiations lasted about 24 hours, during which time a council of Filipinos was hurriedly called to decide upon the course the provincial government should adopt. Very divergent and extreme views were expressed Pablo Mejía, supported by Julio Llorente and Father Julià, advocated an acceptance of the inevitable under protest, whilst General Gabino Sepúlveda declared that he would spill his last drop of blood before the Americans should take possession of the city. But, in the end, Sepúlveda reserved his blood for a better occasion, and eventually accepted employment under the Americans as prosecuting attorney in Bojol Island. Pablo Mejíaʼs advice was acted upon, and in the name of the Cebuános, Luis Flores, the President of the Council, signed a protest10 which was handed to the commander of the Petrel by Pablo Mejía and Julio Llorente in the presence of the United States Vice-Consul. The commander of the Petrel forthwith landed 40 marines, who marched to the Cotta de San Pedro (the fortress) and hoisted the American flag there in the presence of armed Filipinos who looked on in silence. The marines then returned to their vessel, which remained inactive anchored off the cotta, pending the arrival of reinforcements which were sent to Cebú under the command of Colonel Hamer. The provincial government was permitted to continue its functions and use its official seal, and during five months there was no manifest anti-American movement. During this period the American commander of the troops adopted tactics similar to those employed by General E. S. Otis in Manila against Aguinaldo prior to the outbreak in February, 1899. Little by little the Americans required the armed Filipinos to retire farther and farther away from the capital. This practical isolation disgusted the several chiefs, who therefore agreed to open the campaign against the invaders. Every act of the provincial councillors was closely watched and discussed by the Cebuános, amongst whom an intransigent faction secretly charged Mejía and Llorente with being lukewarm in their protection of Philippine interests and unduly favourable to American dominion. Their death was decreed, and Mejía was assassinated as he was passing to his house from that of a neighbour a [524] few yards off. Luis Flores had already resigned public office, and Llorente was, at this time, his successor in the presidency of the Council. Fortunately for him, whilst the murderers were plotting against his life he was called to Manila by General E. S. Otis, two weeks after Mejíaʼs death, to become a magistrate in the Supreme Court. Segundo Singson (afterwards chief judge of the Court of First Instance) then assumed the presidency of the provincial council.

On July 24, 1899, Juan Clímaco and Arcadio Maxílom, chafing at the diminution of their influence in public affairs, suddenly disappeared into the interior and met at Pardo, where the military revolutionary centre was established. Aguinaldoʼs emissary, Pantaleon E. del Rosario, Melquiades Lasala, a Cebuáno of Bogó (known as Dading), Andrés Jayme, Lorega, and an Ilocano named Mateo Luga who had served in the Spanish army, led contingents under the supreme command of the insurgent General Arcadio Maxilom. In the interior they established a fairly well-organized military government. The Island was divided into districts there was little interference with personal liberty taxes for the maintenance of the struggle were collected in the form of contribution according to the means of the donor agriculture was not altogether abandoned, and for over two years the insurgents held out against American rule. The brain of the movement was centred in Juan Clímaco, whilst Mateo Luga exhibited the best fighting qualities. In the meantime American troops were drafted to the coast towns of Tubúran, Bogó, Cármen, etc. There were several severe engagements with slaughter on both sides, notably at Monte Súdlon and Compostela. Five white men joined the insurgent leader Luga, one being an English mercenary trooper, two sailors, and two soldiers the last two were given up at the close of hostilities one of them was pardoned, and the other was executed in the cotta for rape committed at Mandaue.

The co-existence of an American military administration in Cebú City conducting a war throughout the Island, and a Philippine provincial government with nominal administrative powers over the same region, but in strong sympathy with the insurgent cause, was no longer compatible. Moreover, outside the city the provincial government was unable to enforce its decrees amongst the people, who recognized solely the martial-law of the insurgents to whom they had to pay taxes. The Americans therefore abolished the provincial council, which was not grieved at its dissolution, because it was already accused by the people of being pro-American. Philippine views of the situation were expressed in a newspaper, El Nuevo Dia, founded by a lawyer, Rafael Palma, and edited conjointly by Jayme Veyra (afterwards a candidate for the Leyte Island governorship) and an intelligent young lawyer, Sergio Osmeña, already mentioned at p. 521. This organ, the type and style of which favourably compared with any journal ever produced in these Islands, passed through many vicissitudes it was alternately suppressed and [525] revived, whilst its editors were threatened with imprisonment in the cotta and deportation to Guam. Meanwhile the Americans made strenuous efforts to secure the co-operation of the Filipinos in municipal administration, but the people refused to vote. Leading citizens, cited to appear before the American authorities, persistently declined to take any part in a dual régime. The electors were then ordered, under penalties, to attend the polling, but out of the hundreds who responded to the call only about 60 could be coerced into voting. Finally a packed municipal council was formed, but one of its members, a man hitherto highly respected by all, was assassinated, and his colleagues went in fear of their lives.

The war in Panay Island having terminated on February 2, 1901, by the general surrender at Jaro (vide p. 518), General Hughes went to Sámar Island, where he failed to restore peace, and thence he proceeded to Cebú in the month of August at the head of 2,000 troops. A vigorous policy of devastation was adopted. Towns, villages and crops were laid waste Pardo, the insurgent military centre, was totally destroyed peaceful natives who had compulsorily paid tribute to the insurgents at whose mercy they were obliged to live, were treated as enemies their homes and means of livelihood were demolished, and little distinction was made between the warrior and the victim of the war. Desolation stared the people in the face, and within a few weeks the native provincial governor proposed that terms of peace should be discussed. The insurgent chief Lorega surrendered on October 22 Mateo Luga and Arcadio Maxílom submitted five days afterwards and at the end of the month a general cessation of hostilities followed. A neutral zone was agreed upon, extending from Mandaue to Sógod, and there the three peace commissioners on behalf of the Americans, namely Miguel Logarta, Pedro Rodriguez, and Arsenio Clímaco met the insurgent chiefs Juan Clímaco and Arcadio Maxilom. As a result, peace was signed, and the document includes the following significant words, viz.: “putting the Philippine people in a condition to prove their aptitude for self-government as the basis of a future independent life.” The signatories of this document on the part of the Filipinos were Pantaleon E. del Rosario, Melquiades Lasala and Andrés Jayme. After the peace, Mateo Luga and P. E. del Rosario accepted employment under the Americans, the former as Inspector of Constabulary and the latter as Sheriff of Cebú. A few months later, the Americans, acting on information received, proceeded to Tubúran on the government launch Philadelphia, arrested Arcadio Maxílom and his two brothers, and seized the arms which they had secreted on their property. On the launch, one of the Maxíloms unsuccessfully attempted to murder the Americans and was immediately executed, whilst Arcadio and his other brother jumped overboard but Arcadio being unable to swim, was picked up, brought to trial at Cebú, and acquitted. Thus [526] ended the career of General Arcadio Maxílom, whom in 1904 I found living in retirement, almost a hermitʼs life, broken in spirit and body and worried by numerous lawsuits pending against him.

On April 17,1901, Governor W. H. Taft went to Cebú accompanied by a Filipino, H. Pardo de Tavera, whose views were diametrically opposed to those of the Cebuáno majority. Governor Taft established civil government there, although the law of habeas corpus had to be suspended because the war was still raging throughout the Island outside the capital. The provincial government as established by Governor Taft comprises a provincial board composed of three members, namely the Philippine Provincial Governor, the American Supervisor, and the American Treasurer: hence the Americans are in permanent majority and practically rule the Island. The executive of this body is the provincial governor and his staff. The first provincial governor appointed by Governor Taft was Julio Llorente, who resigned the magistracy in Manila and returned to Cebú to take up his new office until the elections took place in January, 1902, when, by popular vote, Juan Clímaco, the ex-insurgent chief, became provincial governor, and on the expiration of his term in January, 1904, he was re-elected for another two years.

There is no noteworthy change in the aspect of Cebú since the American occupation. It is a regularly-built city, with hundreds of good houses, many relatively imposing public buildings, monuments, churches, and interesting edifices. It is a cathedral city and bishopʼs see, full of historical remininscences, and has still a very pleasant appearance, notwithstanding its partial destruction and the many remaining ruins caused by the bombardment by the Spanish warship Don Juan de Austria in April 1838, (vide p. 403). Of special interest are the Cathedral, the Church of Santo Nino, or the “Holy Child of Cebú” (vide p. 183), the Chapels of the Paul Fathers and of the Jesuits, and the Cotta de San Pedro (fortress). Also, just outside the city proper is the Church of San Nicolás. Up to about the year 1876 the Jesuits had a fine church of their own, but the friars, jealous of its having become the most popular place of worship, caused it to be destroyed. Until a few years ago the quarter known as the, Parian was the flourishing centre of the half-caste traders. There was also a busy street of Chinese general shops and native ready-made clothiers in the Lutao district, a thoroughfare which ran along the seashore from the south of the city proper towards San Nicolás it was completely destroyed by the bombardment of 1898, and many of the shopkeepers have erected new premises in the principal shopping street, called Calle de la Infanta. Again, in 1905, a disastrous fire in the business quarter of the city caused damage to the estimated extent of $500,000 gold.

There is a little colony of foreign merchants in Cebú, which formerly ranked as the third port of the Archipelago, but now stands second in importance to Manila (vide Trade Statistics, Chap. xxxi.). Several [527] vice-consulates are established here, and in Spanish times it was the residence of the military governor of Visayas as well as of the governor of the Island and his staff of officials. In 1886 a Supreme Court was inaugurated in Cebú. This city, which was the capital of the Colony from 1565 to 1571, had a municipality up to the time of Gov.-General Pedro de Arándia (1754–59). It was then abolished because there was only one Spaniard capable of being a city councillor. One alderman who had served—Juan Sebastian de Espina—could neither read nor write, and the mayor himself had been deprived of office for having tried to extort money from a Chinaman by putting his head in the stocks. By Royal Order dated June 7, 1889, and put into force by the Gov.-Generalʼs Decree of January 31, 1890, the municipality was re-established. The president was the governor of the Island, supported by an Alcalde and 13 officials. For the government of the Island under the Spanish regime, vide Chap. xiii.

The municipality at present existing is that established by the Taft Commission. The Press, in the days of the Spaniards, was poorly represented by a little news-sheet, styled the Boletin de Cebú. There are now two periodicals of little or no interest.

There are two large cemeteries at Guadalupe and Mabolo. In 1887 a shooting-butts was established at the end of the Guadalupe road, and the annual pony-races take place in January. On the Mabolo road there is a Leper Hospital, and the ruins of a partly well-built jail which was never completed.

Cebú is a port of entry open to foreign trade, with a Custom-house established since the year 1863. The channel for vessels is marked by buoys, and there are two lighthouses at the north and two at the south entrance to the port. The environs are pretty, with Magtan Island (on which Maghallanes was killed) in front and a range of hills in the background. There are excellent roads for riding and driving a few miles out of the city. The climate is very healthy for Europeans the low ranges of mountains running north to south of the Island are sparsely wooded, some being quite bare of trees, and the atmosphere is comparatively dry. The cactus is very common all over the Island, and miles of it are seen growing in the hedges. About an hour and a halfʼs drive from Cebú City there is the little town of Naga, the environs of which are extremely pretty. From the top of Makdoc Mountain, at the back of the town, there is a splendid view of the Pandan Valley.

The Cebuános are the most sociable of the Visaya population, whilst the women are the best-looking of all the Filipinas of pure Oriental descent.

Of all places in the Philippines Cebú will please the conchologist. An old native named Legaspi once had a splendid shell collection, which he freely exhibited to foreigners. At one time he had a Gloria Maris, [528] which he sold for $150, and some Russian naval officers are said to have offered him $5,000 for a part of his collection. At certain seasons of the year the Euplectella speciosa, Gray, or Venus baskets, locally known as Regaderas, can be obtained in quantities they are found in the Cebú waters. The Eup. spec, is the skeleton secretion of an insect of the Porifera division. The basket is a series of graceful fretted spirals. Also fine Piña stuffs can be purchased here.

The population of Cebú City was 9,629 in 1888 10,972 in 1896 and 18,330 in 1903. The inhabitants of the whole Island numbered 417,543 in 1876 518,032 in 1888 595,726 in 1896 and 653,727 in 1903.

In March, 1899, an American armed force was detailed from Cebú City to Bojol Island to demand the surrender of the native provincial government established there since the Spanish evacuation. Interpreters from Cebú were sent ashore, and after hearing their explanation of the Americans demands the native president in council resolved to yield peacefully. A volunteer regiment was then sent ashore, positions were occupied, and all went smoothly on the surface until the Islandersʼ powers of endurance were exhausted after 22 months of alleged harsh treatment imposed upon them by the troops. In January, 1901, the cry of rebellion was raised by one Pedro Sanson, whose band of Bojolanos, augmented by levies from Leyte, Sámar, and Panay Islands numbered about 2,000. Expeditions were sent out against them, and the lukewarm sympathy of the Islanders was turned to general indignation against the Americans by the alleged wanton destruction of a whole town by fire, by order of a captain of volunteers. Practically the whole Island became covertly anti-American. Having finished his campaign in Cebú Island in October, 1901, General Hughes carried his troops over to Bojol Island, where measures of repression were adopted similar to those which had been so effective in reducing the Cebuános to submission. A large number of small towns and villages within the range of military operations were entirely destroyed. The once pretty little town of Lauang was left a complete ruin, and many landmarks of a former progressive civilization have disappeared for ever. Nevertheless, the insurgents refused to yield until a decree was issued to the effect that if the leaders did not surrender by December 27 the invaders would burn down the town of Tagbiláran. In this town, formerly the seat of the native provincial government, Pedro Sanson and most of his officers had all their property and worldly possessions and in view of the beggary which awaited them if they held out any longer, they accepted terms of peace from Pantaleon E. del Rosario, who went up to the mountains and acted as negotiator between General Hughes and the insurgent chiefs who finally surrendered. The Filipino, Aniceto Clarin, appointed provincial governor on April 20, [529] 1901, continued in office Pedro Sanson quietly resumed his occupation of dealer in hemp, etc., and thenceforth peace and poverty reigned in the Island.

In Cottabato (Mindanao Is.), the attempt to establish a local native government ended in tragic failure. In January, 1899, a Spanish gunboat silently entered the port without the customary whistling and firing of salute. It brought a despatch to the Governor from the nominal acting-Gov.-General Rios, who, coming from Yloilo, called at Zamboanga before proceeding to Manila, to receive on board a number of Spanish refugees. One of the crew of the gunboat also brought a private communication from the Jesuit Superior in Zamboanga to the Jesuit missionary Father Suarez. The official despatch notified the Governor that the Treaty of Paris had been signed, and consequently he was to evacuate Cottabato immediately. The private communication told the same tale to the missionary, with an inquiry from the Jesuit Superior as to whether he could continue his mission after the withdrawal of the Spanish Governor, and whether it would be of any advantage to do so. The Governor informed the missionary of his intended departure, and the missionary replied negatively to his superior in Zamboanga. The Governor then called Roman Vilo, his confidential christian native assistant, and told him that he and all who had been loyal to the Spanish Government and faithful in their service could take passage to Zamboanga. Vilo, however, for himself and his family, declined the offer on the ground that all his interests were in and about Cottabato, where he possessed real estate. The Governor then had the Moro-Chinese half-caste Datto Piang called, and in the presence of Vilo the former was appointed chief of the Moro people and the latter governor of the christian population. After making a short speech, exhorting the two chiefs, in benevolent phrases, to live in peace and act mutually for the common good, the Governor, accompanied by the Jesuit missionaries and others who were desirous of leaving the place, went to Zamboanga on the gunboat.

When, after the lapse of some weeks, Datto Piang felt sure that the Spaniards would never be again in authority at Cottabato, he begged Vilo to let him have twenty rifles to defend himself against a rival. The christian governor agreed to this, and week by week Datto Piangʼs demands grew until, at length, all the rifles in the possession of the Christians passed to the Moros. But there still remained some cannons, and Datto Piang, having represented the necessity of making war on another chief up the Cottabato River, Vilo was persuaded to lend them to him. Piang had them placed in vintas (war-junks) and Vilo, with several friends, went down to the river-side to witness the departure of the supposed armed expedition. Suddenly Piang, his son-in-law Datto Ali and this manʼs brother, Datto [530] Djimbangan, at the head of a large party of armed Moros, fell upon and slaughtered the Christians. Viloʼs head was cut off and the savage Mahometans made a raid on the town, looting all but the shops of the Chinese who were in league, or accord, with their half-countryman Piang. The Christians who were unable to escape were either massacred or carried off as slaves into the interior, with the loot. Datto Djimbangan caused the Christian women to be stripped naked and marched through the streets, whilst he and his companions made their selections for themselves, leaving the remainder for their followers. Amongst the captives were a father and two sons. In October, 1899, the Americans sent a gunboat to Cottabato, and the wife of this captive, mother of his two boys, represented her plight to the commander, who forthwith sent for Piang and ordered him immediately to send a message to the individual holding the captives to release them and hand them over to the messenger, who would conduct them back to Cottabato. Piang, without a momentʼs hesitation, offered to comply, and sent a vinta up the river with the required order, but at the same time he secretly sent another emissary overland with contrary instructions. The land messenger, as was expected, arrived first, and when the vinta party reached the place of captivity, Piangʼs people expressed their regret that they could not oblige the party because they had just cut off the captivesʼ heads. In 1904 a member of the victimsʼ family was a teacher in the Jesuitsʼ Catholic School in Zamboanga. Datto Piang, who owes his position and influence over the Moros to the protection of the late great Datto Utto (vide p. 143) is the father-in-law of the terrible Datto Ali whose continual depredations and defiance made Cottabato the centre of that unabated conflict for the Americans described in Chapter xxix.

In the belief that the Zamboangueños were loyally disposed towards Spain, the Spaniards, after the signing of the Treaty of Paris, chose Zamboanga (Mindanao Is.) as their point of concentration of all the Spanish troops and civil servants in the southern islands. At that time General Jaramillo was Gov.-General of Mindanao Island and commander of the forces in Zamboanga but on the arrival there, December 27, 1898, of the ex-governor of Cebu, General Montero, with his co-refugees, General Jaramillo transferred his command to him and left for Manila with General Rios, who had come from Yloilo to Zamboanga to receive refugee passengers for the capital. Before his departure Jaramillo had led the Zamboangueño Christians to believe that the war with America was, at every turn, a triumphant success for Spanish arms fictitious printed telegrams were circulated announcing Spanish victories everywhere, and one of the most extravagant reported that General Weyler had landed on American soil at Key West with an army of 80,000 Spanish troops. The motive of this harmless ruse was to bolster up [531] Spanish prestige and thereby avoid bloodshed. During several months no trading or mail-steamer came, and the Zamboangueños were practically cut off from the rest of the world. Military preparations were made for the feigned purpose of resisting a possible attack on the place by the Americans, who were described to the people as cannibals and ferocious monsters more terrible than the dreaded Moros. Naturally the real object of the military preparations was the Spaniardsʼ justifiable endeavour to be ready to defend themselves against open rebellion when the true situation should ooze out. Nor was their misrepresentation of the Americans mere spiteful calumny the Spaniards were in great jeopardy, and they instinctively wished to destroy any feeling of welcome which the natives might have for the new-comers for fear it might operate against themselves at the supreme moment of danger. Indeed, each party—native and Spanish—was seeking to outwit the other hence, when the Zamboangueños were promised a supply of arms for the ostensible purpose of resisting invasion, they pretended to co-operate heartily with the Spaniardsʼ defensive measures, with the secret design of dispossessing the Spaniards of their arms in order to use them against them. The Zamboangueños therefore became so persistent in their demand upon Montero to fulfil his predecessorʼs promise that at last he had frankly to confess that peace had been signed between Spain and America, whereby the Islands were surrendered to the United States, and that very shortly the Spaniards would evacuate the Archipelago. But the conflicting versions of the situation, published severally by Jaramillo and Montero, sorely puzzled the natives. The Spaniards were still in undisturbed possession of Zamboanga for over four months after Monteroʼs arrival, notwithstanding the fact that the American warship Boston called at the port and left the same day and that an officer came ashore without the least objection or consternation on the part of the Spaniards. The orange-and-red flag still floated over the Fortress del Pilar, and, so far as the Zamboangueños could ascertain, it looked as if the Spaniards were going to remain. They therefore clamoured more loudly than ever for the distribution of arms, which this time Montero positively refused, for the Spaniards had never for a moment been deceived as to the real intentions of the Zamboangueños. On the other hand, by this time, their inoffensive delusion of the people had lost its virtue, and natives and Spaniards thenceforth became open enemies. After the visit of the Boston the fighting population, no longer able to conceal their disappointment, threw off the mask, quitted the town, cut off the water-supply which came from the mountains, in collusion with the mutinied crews seized the firearms on board the Spanish gunboats lying in the harbour, and prepared for war against their old masters. The Spaniards immediately compelled the non-combatant townspeople and the Chinese to throw up earthworks for mounting artillery and dig trenches for defence against the rebels. The gunboat Alava co-operated [532] by firing shells into the rebel camp situated just outside the town. The rebels made two unsuccessful assaults, and in the second attack General Montero was mortally wounded by a rifle-shot. On May 23 the S.S. Leon XIII. arrived the Spaniards silently embarked for Manila with their dying general, who succumbed during the voyage, and Zamboanga, one-fourth of which the defenders had destroyed by fire, was occupied by the rebels. During the siege the Filipinos, true to their instincts, had split up into two rival factions headed by Vicente Alvarez and Isidoro Midel respectively, and in the interval between the first and second assault on the town these party chiefs had fought out their own quarrel, Midel claiming to have been the victor. Nevertheless, the popular favourite was Vicente Alvarez, known as the Tamagun Datto (high chief), who became the chosen president of the Zamboanga revolutionary government established immediately after the Spanish evacuation. Party spirit ran high life was held in little esteem a lifeless body found on the highway startled no one assassination was an occurrence of small moment cattle-shooting was practised for amusement, and the five-and-a-half monthsʼ essay of christian Philippine autonomy was so signalized by jealous self-interest, bitter rivalry, rapacity, and bloodshed as to make one doubt whether the christian Zamboangueño is one whit superior to his Mahometan neighbour in moral character.

The arrival of an American expedition in the waters of Zamboanga on November 15, 1899, produced a sanguinary crisis in these faction feuds. Vicente Alvarez at once took measures to oppose the invadersʼ landing, whilst his rival, Isidoro Midel, resolved to side with the Americans. Divide et impera. The want of unity amongst the natives themselves was a great help to the Americansʼ plans. By this time there appeared a third aspirant to local fame in the person of Melanio Sanson, a native marine engineer, until recently in the Spanish service, who pretended to co-operate with Alvarez, styling himself colonel of artillery in charge of the guns abandoned by his former masters. Each of these three individuals sought to rid himself of his two rivals. On the night of November 15 Isidoro Midel ended Melanio Sansonʼs rivalry for ever, and the Americans took peaceful possession of the town the next day. Subsequently Midel arranged a transfer to the Americans of the artillery which had, during the conflict, been under Sansonʼs control. Vicente Alvarez immediately fled to Mercedes, and thence to Basilan Island, where, aided by Datto Pedro Cuevas, he organized a brigand band, crossed over to Mindanao Island again, and made a raid on Oriquieta. Chased from place to place by American troops, he was finally captured and sent to Bilibid prison in Manila, but was subsequently pardoned on his taking the oath of allegiance, and sent back to Zamboanga, where he earns his living peacefully. Meanwhile, Isidoro Midel had been further rewarded for his services to the Americans with [533] the office of municipal president, which he held for about 16 months in defiance of public opinion. The feeling which prompted public opposition to Midelʼs appointment was at least as much anti-American as it was dislike for the nominee. In March, 1901, municipal elections were held, and Mariano Arquiza succeeded, by popular vote, to the presidency, which he held for two years. Some weeks before Arquiza vacated office two American miners were murdered by the natives a few miles up the province. The murderers, when caught, sought to justify their deed by alleging that a municipal councillor named Eduardo Alvarez (no relation to the Vicente Alvarez already mentioned) had persuaded them that the miners were secretly engaged in poisoning the local wells. The whole municipal council was therefore cited to appear before the American Governor, who severely reprimanded Alvarez, whereupon this man withdrew from the audience-chamber, and his fellow-councillors volunteered such information against him that the Governor instantly issued a warrant for his apprehension. But the native police who went to his house to execute the warrant let him escape on horseback to the mountains, where he organized a band of outlaws and lived for about four months by robbery and violence. Under these circumstances the American Governor summarily dismissed Mariano Arquiza from the municipal presidency in the spring of 1903, and, much to the public chagrin, re-appointed Midel to the vacancy. The offer of $1,000 for the capture of Eduardo Alvarez spurred Midel into further activity, and under his direction the bandit was discovered hiding in a canoe in a swamp. On the approach of his pursuers the outlaw threw up his hands in sign of surrender, which was responded to by a volley of gunshots, for it was Alvarezʼs corpse which was wanted in Zamboanga. Isidoro Midel is an interesting character, apparently about forty-eight years of age. Brought up as a Roman Catholic, he assured me that he was a Protestant, with the strongest sympathy, however, for the Aglipayan movement (vide Chap. xxx.).

Another interesting man, closely associated with recent events in Zamboanga, is the Mahometan Spanish-Moro half-caste Datto Mandi, the Rajahmudah or heir-apparent to the Manguiguin or Sultan of Mindanao (vide p. 131). Born about the year 1860, he and his tribe of Sámals lived on friendly terms with the Spaniards, who in 1887 sent him and a number of his people to the Philippine Exhibition held in Madrid in that year. His exploits in aid of the Spaniards in Cebú are recorded at page 406. He speaks Spanish fluently, and can just write his name. He is very affable and hospitable to visitors. The whole family professes the Mahometan religion. He has a beautiful daughter Gafas (which in Moro language signifies “cotton,” and in Spanish “spectacles”), who attended the American School. His young son Facundo also goes to the American School, and his other son Pelayo went to the Catholic School in Zamboanga before he was sent to [534] Manila. I was much struck with the intelligence of this handsome boy Pelayo. In the stirring events which immediately followed the Spanish evacuation, Datto Mandi remained neutral, his old antagonism to Alvarez being counterpoised by the conviction that a Zamboanga republic must end in a fiasco. He at once accepted the new situation under American dominion, and is headman of the Sámal tribal ward of Magay, a suburb of Zamboanga. He told me in 1904 that he held under his control 9,600 persons, from 1,700 of whom he collected capitation tax for the American authorities. At the instance of the Americans, Datto Mandi issued a proclamation to his tribe, dated April 19, 1900, abolishing their traditional custom of slavery. His position is not at all an easy one, and it needs much tact to maintain an even balance of goodwill between his Sámal subordinates and his American superiors. But Datto Mandi had a grievance which rankled in his breast. In the year 1868 the Spanish Government conceded to a christian native family named Fuentebella some 600 acres of land at Buluan, about 40 miles up the Zamboanga coast, which in time they converted into a prosperous plantation well stocked with cattle. During the anarchy which succeeded the Spanish evacuation, a band of about 600 Moros raided the property, murdered seven of the christian residents, and stole all they could possibly carry away from the plantation and well-furnished estate-house. When Datto Mandi heard of it he went there in person and rescued the women held in captivity and brought them to Zamboanga, where they lived in perfect security under his protection until the American advent. Then, in return for his kindness, these women accused the Datto of having been the instigator of the crime, or, at least, a participator in the proceeds thereof, in the hope that, through the Americans, they would be able to exact an indemnity. The Datto was mulcted in the sum of 5,000 pesos, although he declared to me that neither before nor after the crime was he in any way concerned in it and this was the honest belief of many American officials in Zamboanga.

Missionary and Expounder of the Koran.

In January, 1905, Datto Mandiʼs daughter was married at a little town a few miles from Yligan (north Mindanao). Several American officers were present on the occasion, accompanied by a Spanish half-caste who acted as their interpreter. The assembled guests were having a merry time when suddenly the festivities were interrupted by the intrusion of a juramentado Moro fanatic, who sprang forward with his campilán and at one blow almost severed the interpreterʼs head from his body. Then he turned his attention to the other natives, mortally wounded two, and cut gashes in several others before he fell dead from the revolver-shots fired by the American officers. After the dead and wounded were carried away and the pools of blood were mopped up, the wedding ceremony was proceeded with and the hymeneal festival was resumed without further untoward incident.

Rajahmudah Datto Mandi and Wife

(From a portrait presented by him to the Author.)

Zamboanga is a clean, pleasant town, and what was left of it after the Spanish evacution is well built, with many substantial houses and public offices, a church administered by the Jesuits, one large and one small jetty, a pretty esplanade facing the sea, and other open spaces. A canal running through the town adds to its picturesqueness. At the eastern extremity is the old fortress, called the Fuerza del Pilar, a fine historical monument reminding one of the Spaniardsʼ many vicissitudes in this region, alluded to in the preceding pages. Many of the natives concerned, or alleged to have been concerned, in the Cavite Rising of 1872 (vide p. 106) were confined in this fortress. They overcame their jailors and obtained possession of the guns and ammunition. The Spaniards were consequently in great straits, for possibly their existence depended on which side the townspeople took. The Zamboangueños, however, helped the Spaniards against the revolted convicts, who were finally subdued and as a reward for this proof of loyalty Zamboanga received the title of Muy leal y valiente Villa (very loyal and heroic town). Many years ago a Moro attack was made on Zamboanga, and the Christian natives joined with the Spaniards in repelling it. It would have gone rather badly with them if they had not done so, for a Philippine Christian was just as good fish for the Moro net as a Spaniard. However, their co-operation was gratefully acknowledged by declaring the Zamboangueños to be Spaniards of the first class.

I have never been able to discern clearly what material advantage this brought them, although I have discussed the question on the spot. The disadvantage of this pompous distinction to the town arose from the ridiculous popular notion that whereas Spaniards in Spain are all cavaliers, they too, as Spaniards of the first water, ought to regard work as a degradation. Hence they are a remarkably indolent and effete community, and on landing from a ship there is seldom a porter to be seen to carry oneʼs luggage. Their speech is a dialect called Chabucano—a mixture of very corrupt Spanish and native tongues.

The environment of Zamboanga is very beautiful, with islands to the south and mountain scenery on the land sides. The climate is healthy, and with the frequent delightful breezes wafted across the Celebes Sea is not at all oppressive for a tropical region, and is cooler than Manila, which is 425 miles north.

The people of Sámar Island for a long time tenaciously opposed the American occupation, under several leaders, notably Vicente Lucban and his right-hand man, Guevara but neither here, nor in Marinduque Island can it be said that native civil government was established. In the latter Island the insurgent chief was the titular Colonel Abad, who overran the villages with about 150 followers armed with rifles. In 1901 Abad surrendered, and hostilities, with real political aim, definitely ended in these Islands thirteen months after the capture of Aguinaldo [536] in Luzon. Although in Sámar Island the war was, as elsewhere, a succession of petty encounters, there were incidents in its prosecution which attracted much public attention from time to time. At the town of Balangiga, on September 28, 1901, the local headman and the native parish priest conspired with about 450 armed natives to attack the American camp. The garrison stationed there was Company “C,” 9th Infantry. The headman had represented to the Americans that he was busy with an important capture of about 90 brigands, and on this pretext some 45 cut-throats were brought into the town and lodged in the church. Three officers of the garrison were quartered in the parish-house, and whilst the rank-and-file were at breakfast in a bamboo building, some distance away from their quarters where they had left their weapons, another 45 supposed brigands were led through the town to the church, but naturally the soldiers took little notice of this expected event. The town is surrounded on one side by the open valley and on three sides by almost perpendicular mountains, with defiles between them leading to the interior of the Island. As soon as the last batch of supposed brigands was brought in, the church bells were rung as a signal for a mob of natives, armed with bowie-knives, to creep silently through the defiles on two sides. The troopers were just then suddenly alarmed by the noise of a conflict in the parish-house. The 90 so-called brigands having been passed through from the church into this house, fired at the three officers and then killed them with their bowie-knives. Simultaneously the soldiersʼ quarters were attacked. Whilst the troops made a rush forward to secure their weapons they were intercepted by an armed crowd, through which a small party of Americans finally cut their way and beat off the howling mob, which had already slaughtered many soldiers, set fire to the quarters, and possessed themselves of over 50 rifles and several thousand rounds of ammunition. A large number of hostile natives, including the headman, were killed 28 Americans effected their escape, but the loss amounted to three officers and about 70 men killed and several more men wounded. General Hughes, in command of the Visayas District, was operating in Cebú Island at the time of this disaster. Public excitement was intense when the news of this serious reverse was published. The general who was sent to Sámar to pursue the insurgents, or bandits, is alleged to have issued, in a moment of uncontrollable wrath, an order to “slay all over ten years and make Sámar a howling wilderness.” Consequently a great cry of public protest was raised, and the general and his executive officer in the affair were cited before a court-martial in April, 1902 but the court having found that the general was justified in the measures he took, both officers were acquitted. Since the capture of Lucban (April 27, 1902), lawless agitation has been persistently rife all over the Island of Sámar but this is the work of brigands (vide p. 551) and has no political signification. [537]

1 Raymundo Melliza, a Visayan lawyer, who afterwards became Provincial Governor of Yloilo, is the son of Cornelio Melliza, of Molo, a man much respected both by natives and foreigners.

2 A verbal statement made to me by ex-insurgent General Pablo Araneta, which I took down in writing at the time of the interview.

3 When I asked ex-General Pablo Araneta the same question he naïvely explained to me that it was thought if the Americans came ashore and found the town in ruins they would relinquish their undertaking!

4 The See of Jaro was created in 1867. The town was already rich with its trade in piña and jusi (vide p. 283, footnote). Up to 1876 Yloilo town was merely a group of houses built for commercial convenience.

5 Vide p. 169. Castila in the North Cachila in the South signifying European, and said to be derived from the Spaniardsʼ war-cry of Viva Castilla!

6 “Water-cure” was a method adopted by the Americans. Water was poured down the throat of the victim until the stomach was distended to the full then it was pressed out again and the operation repeated. The pretext for this mode of torture was to extort confession but it was quite inefficacious because the victim was usually disposed to say anything, true or false, for his own salvation. The “water-cure” operation, in vogue for awhile all over the Islands, proved fatal in many cases. It is now a penal offence (Phil. Com. Act 619, Sec. 2).

7 Otong in olden times was a place of importance when the galleons put in there on their way to and from Mexico, taking the longer route in order to avoid the strong currents of the San Bernardino Straits.

Under the old territorial division, the Jurisdiction of Otong comprised all Panay Island (except a strip of land all along the north coast—formerly Panay Province, now called Cápis) and a point here and there on the almost unexplored Negros coast. Galleons were sometimes built at Otong, which was on several occasions attacked by the Dutch. Yloilo at that time was an insignificant fishing-village.

8 A half-caste Chinese family of large means and local influence.

9 Esteban de la Rama is of the family of the late Isidro de la Rama, a well-known prosperous and enterprising Yloilo merchant. Pedro Regalado, personally known to me, is the son of my late friend José Regalado, at one time a wealthy middleman, who, however, lost his fortune in adverse speculations. Pedro Regalado and I were, at one time, together in Hong-Kong, where he learnt English. On the entry of the American troops into Yloilo he was imprisoned on a charge of disaffection, but shortly released and appointed a government interpreter.

10 The protest contained the following significant clauses, viz: (1) “ Ceder á tal exigencia en vista de la superioridad de las armas Americanas. (2) No tener poder, ni la provincia ni todos los habitantes juntos, de ejecutar actas como esta, prohibidas por el Presidente de la República, Señor Emilio Aguinaldo. ”—Extracts taken by myself from the official copy of the protest.